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Anything In Theology

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A

Aachen - In French, Aix-la-Chapelle, the name by which the city is generally known; in Latin Aquae Grani, later Aquisgranum
Aaron - Brother of Moses, and High Priest of the Old Law
Abaddon - A Hebrew word signifying: ruin, destruction (Job 31:12); place of destruction; the Abyss, realm of the dead (Job 26:6; Proverbs 15:11)
Abandonment - A term used by writers of ascetical and mystical books to signify the first stage of the union of the soul with God by conforming to His Will
Abba - Aramaic word for father
Abbess - The female superior in spirituals and temporals of a community of twelve or more nuns
Abbey - A monastery canonically erected and autonomous, with a community of not fewer than twelve religious; monks under the government of an abbot; nuns under that of an abbess
Abbot - A title given to the superior of a community of twelve or more monks
Abbreviation, Methods of - Discusses forms used to get the most use from scarce and costly materials
Abbreviations, Ecclesiastical - Latin abbreviations commonly seen in documents of the Catholic Church, the full Latin words or phrases, and their English meaning
Abdias - A minor prophet
Abduction - May be considered as a public crime and a matrimonial diriment impediment
Abel - Commentary on the first murder victim
Abelard, Peter - Dialectician, philosopher, and theologian (1079-1142)
Abgar, The Legend of - Concerns a correspondence that took place between God and the local potentate at Edessa
Abiogenesis and Biogenesis - According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life
Abomination of Desolation, The - Spoken of in St. Matthew, xxiv, 15, and St. Mark, xiii, 14
Abortion - Briefly defined as 'the loss of a fetal life.'
Abortion, Physical Effects of - Covers definition, causes, and physical effects
Abraham - Outline of his life, with New and Old Testament views
Abraham, The Bosom of - Found only in two verses of St. Luke's Gospel (xvi, 22, 23)
Absalom - Article covers Absalom, son of David; Absalom, father of Mathathias; and Absalom, father of Jonathan
Absolution - The remission of sin, or of the punishment due to sin, granted by the Church
Abstinence - Includes information about old and new testament fasting as well as church laws
Abyss - Primarily and classically an adjective, very deep
Abyssinia - Provides details on the geography, ethnology, political revolutions, as well as church information
Acacius - Patriarch of Constantinople (d. 489)
Academy, The French - Founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635
Accident - The obvious division of things into the stable and the unstable
Accomplice - A term generally employed to designate a partner in some form of evildoing
Achilleus and Nereus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May
Acolyte - A cleric promoted to the fourth and highest minor order in the Latin Church, ranking next to a subdeacon
Acta Pilati - The Gospel of Nicodemus
Acta Sanctæ Sedis - A publication containing the principal public documents issued by the Pope, directly or through the Roman Congregations
Acton, John Emerich Edward Dalberg, Baron Acton - Biography of the historian best-known for his view of the corruption power causes
Acts, Human - St. Thomas and the scholastics in general regard only the free and deliberate acts of the will as human
Acts, Indifferent - An act that is neither good nor bad
Acts of the Apostles - The fifth book of the New Testament
Acts of the Martyrs - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court
Actual Grace - A grace that is given for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself
Ad Limina Visit - The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the 'thresholds of the Apostles', Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses
Adalbert, Saint - Apostle of the Slavs. Monk, missionary to Russia, abbot, and bishop of Magdeburg, d. 981
Adam - First man and father of the human race
Addeus and Maris, Liturgy of - Oriental liturgy, sometimes assigned to the Syrian group; sometimes to the Persian group
Addresses, Ecclesiastical - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence
Adelaide, Saint - Or Adelheid. The widow of Otho, she died in 999
Adeodatus I, Pope Saint - Also known as Pope Adeodatus I, d. 618
Adeodatus - Son of St. Augustine (372-388)
Adeodatus (II), Pope Saint - Brief article on this Roman monk, opponent of Monothelitism, d. 676. Called Adeodatus II to distinguish him from his predecessor St. Deusdedit, who is also called Adeodatus
Adjuration - An urgent demand made upon another to do something, or to desist from doing something, which is rendered more solemn by coupling with it the name of God
Adonai - Hebrew meaning 'lord, ruler', a name bestowed upon God in the Old Testament
Adoption - Adoption, as defined in canon law, is foreign to the Bible
Adoption, Supernatural - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs
Adoptionism - The theory that the man Jesus at some point in time became the Son of God only by adoption. Strictly speaking, refers to an eighth-century Spanish heresy, but the term is also used to cover similar beliefs
Adoration - In the strict sense, an act of religion offered to God in acknowledgment of His supreme perfection and dominion, and of the creature's dependence upon Him
Adoration, Perpetual - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Adoro Te Devote - A hymn sometimes styled Rhythmus, or Oratio, S. Thomae (sc. Aquinatis) written c. 1260
Adrian I, Pope - Reigned 772-95
Adrian II, Pope - Reigned 867-872
Adrian III, Pope Saint - Short article on this pope, a Roman, who died in 885
Adrian IV, Pope - Reigned 1154-1159
Adrian V, Pope - A Genoese, and nephew of Innocent IV. He was elected at Viterbo 12 July 1276, but died 18 August
Adrian VI, Pope - Reigned 1522-1523
Adrian of Canterbury, Saint - African-born Benedictine abbot, d. 710
Adulteration of Food - This act is defined as the addition of any non-condimental substance to a food
Adultery - The article considers adultery with reference only to morality
Advent - According to 1907 usage, a period beginning with the Sunday nearest to the feast of St. Andrew the Apostle and embracing four Sundays
Adventists - A group of six American Protestant sects which hold in common a belief in the near return of Christ in person
Advocatus Diaboli - A title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established in 1587, by Sixtus V, to deal juridically with processes of beatification and canonization
Advowson - In English law the right of patronage of a church or ecclesiastical benefice, a right exercised by nomination of a clergyman to such church or other benefice
Adytum - A secret chamber or place of retirement in the ancient temples, and esteemed the most sacred spot; the innermost sanctuary or shrine
Aelfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899)
Aelred, Saint - Cistercian abbot, homilist, spiritual writer, d. 1166 or 1167
Aeons - The term appropriated by Gnostic heresiarchs to designate the series of spiritual powers evolved by progressive emanation from the eternal Being
Asthetics - May be defined as a systematic training to right thinking and right feeling in matters of art, and is made a part of philosophy by A.G. Baumgarten
Affinity (in the Bible) - Scripture recognizes affinity as an impediment to wedlock
Affinity (in Canon Law) - A relationship arising from the carnal intercourse of a man and a woman, sufficient for the generation of children, whereby the man becomes related to the woman's blood-relatives and the woman to the man's
Africa - This name, which is of Phoenician origin, was at first given by the Romans to the territory about the city of Carthage
African Liturgy - In use not only in the old Roman province of Africa of which Carthage was the capital, but also in Numidia and Mauretania
African Synods - Commonly called African or Carthaginian Synods
Agabus - Mentioned in Acts 11:28, and 21:10, as a prophet of the New Testament
Agape - Under certain circumstances the agape and the Eucharist appear to form parts of a single liturgical function
Agapetus I, Pope Saint - Anti-Arian, instrumental in deposing a Monophysite bishop who had moreover abandoned his see, d. 536
Agapetus II, Pope - Reigned 946-955
Agatha, Saint - Virgin and martyr, died at Catania in Sicily, probably in the Decian persecution (250-253)
Agatho, Pope Saint - Short article on St. Agatho the Wonderworker, a Sicilian believed to have been over 100 years old at the time of his election. He died in 681
Age, Canonical - Fixed by the canons, or law of the Church, at which her subjects become capable of incurring certain obligations, enjoying special privileges, embracing special states of life, holding office or dignity, or receiving the sacraments
Age of Reason - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible
Agnes of Assisi, Saint - Brief biography of the younger sister of St. Clare, and prioress of the Poor Clares at Monticelli
Agnes of Bohemia, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress
Agnes of Prague, Blessed - Also called Agnes of Prague. Poor Clare, prioress
Agnes of Rome, Saint and Martyr - Virgin, martyred at the age of 12 or 13, revered since at least the mid-fourth century
Agnosticism - A philosophical theory of the limitations of knowledge, professing doubt of or disbelief in some or all of the powers of knowing possessed by the human mind
Agnus Dei - The name given to certain discs of wax impressed with the figure of a lamb and blessed at stated seasons by the Pope
Agnus Dei (in Liturgy) - A name given to the formula recited thrice by the priest at Mass in the Roman rite
Agony of Christ - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani
Agrapha - Term for alleged sayings of Jesus, found in ancient Christian writings, not included in the canonical Gospels
Agreda, Maria de - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665)
Agrippa of Nettesheim, Heinrich Cornelius - Described as a 'knight, doctor, and by common reputation, a magician'
Aidan of Lindisfarne, Saint - Irish monk, first bishop of Lindisfarne, d. 651
Aisle - In architecture, one of the lateral or longitudinal divisions of a church, separated from the nave by rows of piers, pillars, or columns
Alanus de Rupe - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Alb - A white linen vestment with close fitting sleeves, reaching nearly to the ground and secured round the waist by a girdle
Alban, Saint - First martyr of Britain, d. about 304. Biographical article
Albania - The ancient Epirus and Illyria, is the most western land occupied by the Turks in Europe
Alberta and Saskatchewan - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day
Albertus Magnus, Saint - Called 'the Universal Doctor.' Dominican scientist, philosopher, theologian, instructor of St. Thomas Aquinas
Albigenses - A neo-Manichaean sect that flourished in southern France in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries
Alchemy - The art of transmuting baser metals into gold and silver
Alcoholism - The term is understood to include all the changes that may occur in the human organism after the ingestion of any form of alcohol
Alcuin - Lengthy article on the educator, scholar, theologian, liturgist, who died in 804
Alexander I, Pope Saint - Article on this pope, who died in 115 or 116. According to a tradition dating to the fifth century, Alexander was martyred, but it is possible that he has been confused with another St. Alexander who was indeed a martyr
Alexander II, Pope - Reigned 1061-1073
Alexander III, Pope - Reigned from 1159-81
Alexander IV, Pope - Reigned 1254-61
Alexander V - Pietro Philarghi, born c. 1339, on the island of Crete (Candia), whence his appellation, Peter of Candia; elected 26 June, 1409; died at Bologna, 3 May, 1410
Alexander VI, Pope - Rodrigo Borgia, born at Xativa, near Valencia, in Spain, 1 January, 1431; died in Rome, 18 August, 1503
Alexander VII, Pope - Biographical article on this seventeenth-century pontiff
Alexander VIII, Pope - Pietro Ottoboni, born at Venice, April, 1610; elected 5 October, 1689; died at Rome, 1 February, 1691
Alexander, Saint (Bishop of Comana) - Called 'The Charcoal Burner.' Made bishop of Comana at the recommendation of St. Gregory Thaumaturgus. St. Alexander was martyred in the Decian persecution
Alexander, Saint (Patriarch of Alexandria) - Patriarch of Alexandria. Elected instead of the heresiarch Arius, who had been scheming to be made bishop. A man of great holiness, St. Alexander died in 326
Alexander of Hales - Biographical article on the first of the scholastic theologians to use Aristotelean principles in systematic theology
Alexandria - Seaport of Egypt, on the left bank of the Nile
Alexandria, The Church of - Founded by St. Mark the Evangelist, the center from which Christianity spread throughout all Egypt, the nucleus of the powerful Patriarchate of Alexandria
Alexandrian Library, The - The Great Library of Alexandria, so called to distinguish it from the smaller or 'daughter' library in the Serapeum, was a foundation of the first Ptolemies for the purpose of aiding the maintenance of Greek civilization in the midst of the conservative Egyptians
Alexandrinus, Codex - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see
Alexius, Saint - Tries to untangle the story of the Man of God. According to tradition, a fifth-century Roman who became a beggar in Edessa. He is honored as a confessor of the Faith
Alfred the Great - King of the West Saxons (849-899)
Algonquins - The Micmacs, Abenakis, Montagnais, Penobscots, Chippewas, Mascoutens, Nipissings, Sacs, Pottowatomies, and Illinois, the Pequods of Massachusetts, the Mohegans of New York, the Lenapes of Pennsylvania and Delaware, with many other minor tribes, may be classed among them
Alighieri, Dante - An annotated (in linked hypertext) biography of the poet
Alimentation - In a broad sense, whatever is necessary to sustain human life: not merely food and drink, but lodging, clothing, care during sickness and burial
Alimony - In the common legal sense of the word, the allowance by order of the court a husband pays to his wife for her maintenance while she is living separately from him, or paid by her former husband to a divorced woman
All Saints' Day - Celebrated on the first of November. Instituted to honour all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year
All Souls' Day - The commemoration of all the faithful departed is celebrated by the Church on 2 November, or, if this be a Sunday or a solemnity, on 3 November
Allah - The name of God in Arabic
Alleluia - A liturgical mystic expression
Allen, Frances - The first woman of New England birth to become a nun (1784-1819)
Allen, John - Archbishop of Dublin, canonist, and Chancellor of Ireland (1476-1534)
Allen, John - Priest and martyr. He was executed at Tyburn in the beginning of the year 1538
Alma - A Hebrew word signifying a 'young woman', unmarried as well as married
Alms and Almsgiving - Any material favour done to assist the needy, and prompted by charity
Aloysius Gonzaga, Saint - Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23
Alpha and Omega (in Scripture) - Employed from the fourth century as a symbol expressing the confidence of orthodox Christians in the scriptural proofs of Our Lord's divinity
Alpha and Omega - Includes Jewish and Christian meanings
Alphabet, Christian Use of the - The Hebrew, Greek and Latin alphabets have been variously made use of in Christian liturgy
Alphonsus Liguori, Saint - Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer
Alphonsus Rodriguez, Saint - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso
Alsace-Lorraine - The German Imperial Territory so known, and divided for State purposes into three civil districts
Altar Breads - Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist
Altar Candles - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax
Altar Candlesticks - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed
Altar Cloths - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass
Altar Crucifix - The principal ornament of the altar
Altar Frontal - An appendage which covers the entire front of the altar, from the lower part of the table to the predella, and from the gospel corner to that of the epistle side
Altar, High - The chief altar in a church, raised on an elevated plane in the sanctuary, where it may be seen simultaneously by all the faithful in the body of the church
Altar Horns - On the Jewish altar there were four projections, one at each corner, which were called the horns of the altar. These projections are not found on the Christian altar, but the word cornu ('horn') is still maintained to designate the sides or corners of the altar
Altar Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Altar Linens - The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels
Altar (in Liturgy) - In the New Law the altar is the table on which the Eucharistic Sacrifice is offered
Altar Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Altar Vessels - The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained
Altar Wine - Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid and licit consecration vinum de vite, i.e. the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, is to be used
Altars (in Scripture) - Describes several biblical uses of the word
Altar, History of the Christian - An elevated surface, tabular in form, on which the Sacrifice of the Mass is offered
Altruism - A term formed by Auguste Comte in 1851, to denote the benevolent, as contrasted with the selfish propensities
Alumnus - Signifies in ecclesiastical usage, a student preparing for the sacred ministry in a seminary
Alvarado, Pedro de - Accompanied Grijalva on his exploration of Yucatan and the Mexican coast in 1518, and was the chief officer of Cortez during the conquest of Mexico
Alypius, Saint - Close friend of St. Augustine of Hippo. Like Augustine, Alypius was baptized by Ambrose. St. Alypius became bishop of Tagaste
Amalec - A people remembered chiefly as the most hated of all the enemies of Israel
Ambition - The undue craving for honor
Ambo - A word of Greek origin, supposed to signify a mountain or elevation
Ambrosian Basilica - Erected at Milan by fourth-century bishop, St. Ambrose, and was consecrated in the year 386
Ambrose, Saint - Article on the life and teachings of this Bishop of Milan, and Doctor of the Church, who died in 397
Ambrosian Chant - Chant composed by St. Ambrose
Ambrosian Liturgy and Rite - The liturgy and Rite of the Church of Milan, which derives its name from St. Ambrose, Bishop of Milan (374-397)
Ambulatory - A cloister, gallery, or alley; a sheltered place, straight or circular, for exercise in walking; the aisle that makes the circuit of the apse of a church
Amen - One of a small number of Hebrew words which have been imported unchanged into the liturgy of the Church
America - Consists of three main divisions: North America, Central America, and South America
America, Pre-Columbian Discovery of - Offers details of early exploration
Amerigo Vespucci - Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512)
Amice - A short linen cloth, square or oblong in shape and, like the other sacerdotal vestments, needing to be blessed before use
Ammonites - A race closely allied to the Hebrews
Amorrhites - A name of doubtful origin and meaning, used to designate an ancient people often mentioned in the Old Testament
Amos - Old Testament prophet
Ampè, Andre-Marie - Physicist and mathematician (1775-1836)
Amphilochius of Iconium - Fourth-century Cappadocian bishop
Amphoræ - Vessels generally made of clay, and furnished with ears or handles
Ampullæ - Their peculiarity consists in the sediment of dark red colour they contain, from which they derive the name, blood-ampullae, on the theory that the sediment is the remains of the blood of a martyr
Amsterdam - The capital, and second residential city of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Amulet - An object generally inscribed with mysterious formulae and used by pagans as a protection against various maladies, as well as witchcraft
Anabaptists - A violent and extremely radical body of ecclesiastico-civil reformers which first made its appearance in 1521 at Zwickau
Anacletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus
Anacletus II - The title which was taken by Cardinal Pietro Pierleone at the contested papal election of the year 1130
Anasthesia - A term in medicine, and the allied sciences, signifying a state of insensibility to external impressions, consequent upon disease, or induced artificially by the employment of certain substances known as anaesthetics, or by hypnotic suggestion
Analogy - A philosophical term used to designate, first, a property of things; secondly, a process of reasoning
Analysis - The process by which anything complex is resolved into simple, or at least less complex parts or elements
Anaphora - A liturgical term in the Greek Rite
Anarchy - An absence of law
Anastasia, Saint - Article on this martyr, whose feast day is 25 December. Attracted a cultus at Rome in the late fifth century, and a sixth-century legend makes her a Roman matron, though martyred elsewhere
Anastasius I, Pope Saint - Article on the pope remembered chiefly for condemning Origenism, d. 401
Anastasius II, Pope - Reigned 496-498
Anastasius III, Pope - Reigned 911-913
Anastasius IV, Pope - Reigned 1153-1154
Anastasius, Saint - A former magician and soldier, converted to Christianity, became a monk. He was martyred in 628
Anathema - Placed on high, suspended, set aside
Anatomy - The science of the form and structure of living beings
Anchor (as Symbol), The - Regarded in ancient times as a symbol of safety
Anchorites - In Christian terminology, men who have sought to triumph over the two unavoidable enemies of human salvation, the flesh and the devil, by depriving them of the assistance of their ally, the world
Ancient of Days - A name given to God by the Prophet Daniel
Andreas, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720
Andrew, Saint (Apostle and Martyr) - The Apostle in Scripture and tradition
Andrew Bobola, Saint - Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657
Andrew Corsini, Saint - Article on this Carmelite, called 'the Apostle of Florence,' regarded as a prophet and thaumaturgus, who became bishop of Fiesoli, and died in 1373
Andrew of Crete, Saint - Also known as Andreas, monk, bishop of Gortyna, best known for his hymnody, d. 740 or 720
Andrew the Scot, Saint - Brother of St. Bridget the Younger and archdeacon of Fiesole, d. about 877
Angel - The word is used in Hebrew to denote indifferently either a divine or human messenger
Angel, Guardian - The lowest orders of angels are sent to men
Angela Merici, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540
Angela of Foligno, Blessed - Short biography of the penitent, mystic, writer, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1309
Angelico, Fra - Biography of this Dominican, a famous painter, who died in 1455
Angels, Early Christian Representations of - The oldest fresco in which an angel appears is the Annunciation scene (second century) of the cemetery of St. Priscilla
Angels of the Churches - St. John in the Apocalypse is shown seven
candlesticks and in their midst, the Son of Man holding seven stars. The candlesticks represent the seven Churches of Asia; the stars, the angels of those Churches
Angelus - A short practice of devotion in honour of the Incarnation repeated three times each day, morning, noon, and evening, at the sound of the bell
Angelus Bell - The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell
Anger - The desire of vengeance
Anglican Orders - In the creed of the Catholic Church, Holy Order is one of the Seven Sacraments instituted by Our Lord Jesus Christ
Anglicanism - A term used to denote the religious belief and position of members of the established Church of England
Anglo-Saxon Church, The - History of the occupation, conversion, and development
Anicetus, Pope Saint - Biography of this martyr, a contemporary of St. Polycarp and of the heretic Marcion
Anima Christi - Well known prayer dating from the first half of the fourteenth century and enriched with indulgences by Pope John XXII in the year 1330
Animals in Christian Art - Animal forms have always occupied a place of far greater importance than was ever accorded to them in the art of the pagan world
Animals in the Bible - The sacred books were composed by and for a people almost exclusively given to husbandry and pastoral life, hence in constant communication with nature
Animals, Cruelty to - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives
Animism - The doctrine or theory of the soul
Anna - Details of four women by this name in Sacred Scripture
Anna Comnena - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118)
Anne, Saint - According to apocryphal literature, the mother of Mary
Anne d'Auray, Sainte - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne
Anne de Beaupré, Sainte - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada
Anne Line, Saint - A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Fact of the - In the sixth month after the conception of St. John the Baptist by Elizabeth, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to the Virgin Mary
Annunciation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The Feast of the - In the Latin Church this feast is first mentioned in the Sacramentarium of Pope Gelasius
Anointing of the Sick - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Anselm, Saint - Long biographical article on St. Anselm, monk, abbot, philosopher, theologian, Archbishop of Canterbury, Doctor of the Church
Antediluvians - People who lived before the flood
Anterus, Pope Saint - Also known as Anteros, pope for less than 2 months, d. in 236. Short biographical article
Anthony of the Desert, Saint - Article on the founder of Christian monasticism
Anthony of Padua, Saint - Long article on the Augustinian canon turned Franciscan, priest, preacher, miracle worker, d. 1231. Known as 'the Hammer of the Heretics.'
Anthropomorphism, Anthropomorphites - A term used in its widest sense to signify the tendency of man to conceive the activities of the external world as the counterpart of his own
Antichrist - Defines the word according to its biblical and ecclesiastical usage
Antinomianism - The heretical doctrine that Christians are exempt from the obligations of moral law
Antioch - Provides information on two places by this name
Antioch, The Church of - A city on the banks of the lower Orontes
Antiphon - One or more psalm verses or sentences from Holy Scripture which are sung or recited before and after each psalm and the Magnificat during Matins and Vespers
Antiphon, Communion - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament
Antiphonary - One of the present liturgical books intended for use in the liturgical choir, and originally characterized, by the assignment to it principally of the antiphons used in various parts of the Roman liturgy
Antipodes - Speculations concerning the rotundity of the earth and the possible existence of human beings 'with their feet turned towards ours' were of interest to the Fathers of the Early Church only in so far as they seemed to encroach upon the fundamental Christian dogma of the unity of the human race, and the consequent universality of original sin and redemption
Antipope - A false claimant of the Holy See in opposition to a pontiff canonically elected
Antiquities, Biblical - Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities
Antoninus Pius - Roman Emperor (138-161)
Antonio Maria Zaccaria, Saint - A Doctor of Medicine, founder of the Barnabites, d. 1539
Antwerp - A city of Belgium, in the archdiocese of Mechlin
Apaches - A tribe of North American Indians belonging linguistically to the Athapascan stock whose original habitat is believed to have been Northwestern Canada
Apocalypse, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation
Apocatastasis - A name given in the history of theology to the doctrine which teaches that a time will come when all free creatures will share in the grace of salvation; in a special way, the devils and lost souls
Apocrypha - A long article with a comments on each Apocryphal book. Classified according to origin
Apollinarianism - Fourth-century Christological heresy propounded by Apollinaris of Laodicea. The theory that Jesus had a human body and soul, but that the Logos took the place of the human spirit or mind in Jesus. Solemnly condemned at the Council of Constantinople in 381
Apollonia, Saint - A virgin, possibly ordained, martyr at Alexandria in late 248 or early 249
Apologetics - A theological science which has for its purpose the explanation and defence of the Christian religion
Apostasy - The word itself in its etymological sense, signifies the desertion of a post, the giving up of a state of life; he who voluntarily embraces a definite state of life cannot leave it, therefore, without becoming an apostate
Apostle Spoons - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles
Apostles, The - Apostolos (Apostle) means one who is sent forth, who is entrusted with a mission
Apostles, Acts of the - The fifth book of the New Testament
Apostles' Creed - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles
Apostles, Portraits of the - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . .
Apostles of Erin, The Twelve - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath
Apostleship of Prayer, The - A pious association otherwise known as a league of prayer in union with the Heart of Jesus
Apostolic Blessing - The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions
Apostolic Camera - The former central board of finance in the papal administrative system, which at one time was of great importance in the government of the States of the Church, and in the administration of justice
Apostolic Churches - All the individual orthodox churches could, in a sense, be called Apostolic Churches, because they were in some more or less mediate connection with the Apostles
Apostolic Constitutions - A fourth-century pseudo-Apostolic collection, in eight books, of independent, though closely related, treatises on Christian discipline, worship, and doctrine, intended to serve as a manual of guidance for the clergy, and to some extent for the laity
Apostolic Fathers, The - Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had personal relations with some of the Apostles, or to have been so influenced by them that their writings may be held as echoes of genuine Apostolic teaching
Apostolic Letters - The letters of the Apostles to Christian communities or those in authority
Apostolic See, The - A metaphorical term, used, as happens in all languages, to express the abstract notion of authority by the concrete name of the place in which it is exercised
Apostolic Succession - Article claims that Apostolic succession is found in the Catholic Church and not in others
Apostolicity - The mark by which the Church of today is recognized as identical with the Church founded by Jesus Christ upon the Apostles
Apotheosis - Deification, the exaltation of men to the rank of gods
Apparitions - The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man
Appeals - The purpose of this article is to give a comprehensive view of the positive legislation of the Church on appeals belonging to the ecclesiastical forum; but it does not treat of the nature of the ecclesiastical forum itself nor of the rights of the Church and its supreme head, the pope, to receive appeals in ecclesiastical matters
Appetite - A tendency, an inclination, or direction
Approbation - An act by which a bishop or other superior grants to an ecclesiastic the actual exercise of his ministry
Appropriation - In theology, appropriation is used in speaking of the different Persons of the Trinity
Apse - The semicircular or polygonal termination to the choir or aisles of a church
Apse Chapel - A chapel radiating tangentially from one of the bays or divisions of the apse, and reached generally by a semicircular passageway, or ambulatory, exteriorly to the walls or piers of the apse
Aquila and Priscilla - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth
Aquinas, St. Thomas - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274
Arabia - The cradle of Islam and, in all probability, the primitive home of the Semitic race
Aragon and Castile - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon
Arawaks - The first American aborigines met by Columbus
Arbitration - A method of arranging differences between two parties by referring them to the judgment of a disinterested outsider whose decision the parties to a dispute agree in advance to accept as in some way binding
Arca - A box in which the Eucharist was kept by the primitive Christians in their homes
Arch - A structure composed of separate pieces, such as stone or bricks, having the shape of truncated wedges, arranged on a curved line so as to retain their position by mutual pressure
Archæology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Archbishop - An archbishop or metropolitan, in the present sense of the term, is a bishop who governs a diocese strictly his own, while he presides at the same time over the bishops of a well-defined district composed of simple dioceses but not of provinces
Archconfraternity - A confraternity empowered to aggregate or affiliate other confraternities of the same nature, and to impart to them its indulgences and privileges
Archdeacon - The incumbent of an ecclesiastical office dating back to antiquity and up to the fifteenth century of great importance in diocesan administration, particularly in the West
Archdiocese - Not an ecclesiastical province, but only that diocese of the province which is the archbishop's own
Archeology, Christian - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Archimandrite - In the Greek Rite the superior of a monastery or of several monasteries
Architecture, Ecclesiastical - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber
Architecture, Gothic - History of the style
Archives, Ecclesiastical - A collection of documents, records, and memorials, pertaining to the origin, foundation, growth, history, and constitutions of a diocese, parish, monastery, or religious community under the jurisdiction of the Church
Archpriest - Since the fourth century numerous dioceses had an archpriest, or head of the college of presbyters, who aided and represented the bishop in the discharge of his liturgical and religious duties
Archpriest Controversy - Arose in England on the appointment of George Blackwell as archpriest with jurisdiction over the secular clergy of England and Scotland, by the Holy See on 7 March, 1598
Arianism - Founded by Arius, belief asserting that Christ was not God like the Father, but a creature made in time. Rejected by the Council of Constantinople (381)
Aristides - A Christian apologist living at Athens in the second century
Aristotle - Philosopher, born at Stagira, a Grecian colony in the Thracian peninsula Chalcidice, 384 B.C.; died at Chalcis, in Euboea, 322 B.C
Arius - An heresiarch, born about A.D. 250; died 336
Ark, Noah's - The form, very likely foursquare, was not convenient for navigation, but, as has been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the Ark a very suitable device for shipping heavy cargoes and floating upon the waves without rolling or pitching
Ark of the Covenant - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height
Armada, The Spanish - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown
Armagh - Archdiocese founded by St. Patrick about 445, as the primatial and metropolitan see of Ireland
Armenia - A mountainous region of Western Asia occupying a somewhat indefinite area to the southeast of the Black Sea
Arminianism - The popular designation of the doctrines held by a party formed in the early days of the seventeenth century among the Calvinists of the Netherlands
Arnulf of Metz, Saint - Frankish civil servant at the court of Austrasia, bishop of Metz, hermit, d. about 640
Art, Christian - Also called ecclesiastical art
Art, Ecclesiastical - Article explores the origin, history, and types
Articles of Faith - Certain revealed supernatural truths such as those contained in the symbol of the Apostles
Arts, The Seven Liberal - Chiefly used during the Middle Ages. Doesn't mean arts as the word is understood today, but those branches of knowledge which were taught in the schools of that time
Ascension - The elevation of Christ into heaven by His own power in presence of His disciples the fortieth day after His Resurrection
Ascension, Feast of the - The fortieth day after Easter Sunday,
commemorating the Ascension of Christ into heaven, according to Mark 16:19, Luke 24:51, and Acts 1:2 Ascetical Theology - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism
Asceticism - The word asceticism comes from the Greek askesis which means practice, bodily exercise, and more especially, atheletic training
Aseity - The property by which a being exists of and from itself
Ash Wednesday - The Wednesday after Quinquagesima Sunday, which is the first day of the Lenten fast
Ashes - A number of passages in the Old Testament connect ashes with mourning
Asia - Article intended to give a rapid survey of the geography, ethnography, political and religious history of Asia, and especially of the rise, progress, and actual condition of Asiatic Christianity and Catholicism
Asia Minor - The peninsular mass that the Asiatic continent projects westward of an imaginary line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta (Issus) on the Mediterranean to the vicinity of Trebizond (Trapezus) on the Black Sea
Asmodeus - Demon mentioned in the Book of Tobias
Asperges - The rite of sprinkling the congregation with holy water before the principal Mass on Sunday
Ass, The, in Caricature of Christians - The calumny of onolatry, or ass-worship, attributed by Tacitus and other writers to the Jews, was afterwards, by the hatred of the latter, transferred to the Christians
Assemblies of the French Clergy - Meetings of the Clergy of France for the purpose of apportioning the financial burdens laid upon the Church by the kings of France, and incidentally for other ecclesiastical purposes
Asses, Feast of - The feast dates from the eleventh century, though the source which suggested it is much older
Assideans - The maintainers of the Mosaic Law against the invasion of Greek customs
Assisi - Diocese in Umbria
Assumption of Mary - The principal feast of the Blessed Virgin
Assyria - Includes geographical and historical information
Assyrian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Astrology - The supposed science which determines the influence of the stars, especially of the five older planets, on the fate of man
Astronomy - Divided into two main branches, astrometry and astrophysics; the former concerned with determining the places of the investigation of the heavenly bodies, the latter, with the investigation of their chemical and physical nature
Astronomy in the Bible - Includes examples of Old and New Testament references
Atavism - Duchesne introduced the word to designate those cases in which species revert spontaneously to what are presumably long-lost characters
Athanasian Creed, The - One of the symbols of the Faith approved by the Church and given a place in her liturgy
Athanasius, Saint - Long article on the Bishop of Alexandria, confessor and Doctor of the Church
Atheism - That system of thought which is formally opposed to theism
Athenagoras - A Christian apologist of the second half of the second century of whom no more is known than that he was an Athenian philosopher and a convert to Christianity
Athens, Christian - History of the Church in Athens
Athos, Mount - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring
Atom - Primarily, the smallest particle of matter which can exist
Atomism - The system of those who hold that all bodies are composed of minute, indivisible particles of matter called atoms
Atonement, Day of - A most solemn fast, on which no food could be taken throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden
Atonement, Doctrine of the - In Catholic theology, the Atonement is the Satisfaction of Christ, whereby God and the world are reconciled or made to be at one
Attila the Hun - Life and times of the legendary king
Attributes, Divine - In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the implications of the truth, God is All-Perfect, this infinite Perfection is viewed, successively, under various aspects, each of which is treated as a separate perfection and characteristic inherent to the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain group of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine Attributes
Attrition - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations
Audiences, Pontifical - The receptions given by the pope to cardinals, sovereigns, princes, ambassadors, and other persons, ecclesiastical or lay, having business with or interest in the Holy See
Augustine, Rule of Saint - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism
Augustine of Canterbury, Saint - Biographical article on the monk who was the first Archbishop of Canterbury, called 'Apostle of the English.'
Augustine of Hippo, Saint - Biography, with extensive hyperlinks to related articles
Augustine of Hippo, Teaching of Saint - Article on Augustine as a Doctor of the Church, and his influence in the history of philosophy and theology. Particular interest in his teaching on grace
Augustine of Hippo, Works of Saint - Annotated bibliography of Augustine's principal writings
Augustinian Canons - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric
Augustinians - A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name
Augustus - The name by which Caius Julius Caesar Octavianus, the first Roman emperor, in whose reign Jesus Christ was born, is usually known; born at Rome, 62 B.C.; died A.D. 14
Aurelian - Roman Emperor, 270-275, born near Sirmium in Pannonia, 9 September, 214; died 275
Aurelius Antoninus, Marcus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher
Australia - Includes history, education, and religious statistics
Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, The - The European monarchy whose dominions have for their main life-distributing artery the River Danube, in its course from Engelhartszell, near Passau, to Orsova. South of the Danube lie the Austrian Alpine provinces and the provinces of Carinthia and Carnola; north of the Danube are the Carpathian and Sudetic provinces
Authentic - The term is used in two senses. It is applied first to a book or document whose contents are invested with a special authority, in virtue of which the work is called authentic. In its second sense it is used as a synonym for 'genuine', and therefore means that a work really emanates from the author to whom it is ascribed
Authenticity of the Bible - The authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship: human authors and divine inspiration
Authority, Civil - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Authorized Version, The - Historical background on the AV, also called the King James Bible
Autocephali - A designation in early Christian times of certain bishops who were subject to no patriarch or metropolitan, but depended directly on the triennial provincial synod or on the Apostolic See
Auxiliary Bishop - A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is unable to perform the pontifical functions; or whose diocese is so extensive that it requires the labors of more than one; or whose episcopal see has attached to it a royal or imperial office requiring protracted presence at court
Avarice - The inordinate love for riches
Avatar - The word is used, in a technical sense, in the Hindu religion to denote the descent upon earth of a portion of the essence of a god, which then assumes some coarser material form, be it animal, monster, or man
Ave Maria - Analysis of the prayer Ave Maria: origins and development
Ave Maris Stella - The first verse of an unrhymed, accentual hymn, of seven stropes of four lines each, assigned in Roman Breviary to Vespers in the Common office, the Office of Saturdays, and the Little Office (as well as for Feasts) of the Blessed Virgin
Averroes - Arabian philosopher, astronomer, and writer on jurisprudence; born at Cordova, 1126; died at Morocco, 1198
Avesta, The - The sacred books of Parsees, or Zoroastrians, and the main source of our knowledge concerning the religious and spiritual life the ancient Persians
Avicenna - Arabian physician and philosopher, born at Kharmaithen, in the province of Bokhara, 980; died at Hamadan, in Northern Persia, 1037
Avignon - Written in the form of Avennio in the ancient texts and inscriptions, takes its name from the House, or Clan, Avennius
Avignon, Councils of - Details of several councils held here
Axum - A titular metropolitan see of ancient Christian Ethiopia
Ayllón, Lucas Vésquez de - This Spanish discoverer of Chesapeake Bay, and the first who tried to find a northwest passage from Europe to Asia, date of birth uncertain; died 18 October, 1526
Azores - An archipelago situated in that tract of the Atlantic Ocean which is known to mariners as the Sargasso Sea
Aztecs - A surname applied to the tribe of the Mexica, or Chichimeca Mexitin, which occupied aboriginal Mexico, in more or less contiguous groups, at the beginning of the sixteenth century, when the Spaniards first came into contact with them
Azymes - Unfermented cakes used by the Jews in their various sacrifices and religious rites

B

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Baal, Baalim - A word which belongs to the oldest stock of the Semite vocabulary and primarily means 'lord', 'owner'
Babel, Tower of - Information on the history, site, and construction of the tower
Babylonia - Includes geography, history, and biblical references
Bacchus and Sergius - Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East
Bacon, Roger - Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294
Baconian System of Philosophy, The - Essay takes a look at this system and its relation to theology and the beliefs of the Catholic church
Bahama Islands, The - The most northerly group of the West Indies
Baius, Michel - Theologian and author of a system known as Baianism (1513-1589)
Balaam - The derivation of the name is uncertain. Dr. Neubauer would connect it with the god Ammo or Ammi, as though Balaam belonged to a people whose god or lord was Ammo or Ammi
Balboa, Vasco Nuñez de - Explorer, discoverer of the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of Central America (1475-1517)
Balsam - Balsam is an oily, resinous, and odorous substance, which flows spontaneously or by incision from certain plants, and which the Church mixes with olive oil for use as chrism
Baltasar - The Greek and Latin name for Belshazzar, which is the Hebrew equivalent for Bel-sarra-usur, i.e., 'May Bel protect the king'
Baltimore, Archdiocese of - History includes colonial and American periods
Baltimore, Plenary Councils of - Provides details of three councils held in 1852, 1866, and 1884
Bankruptcy, Moral Aspect of - Bankruptcy must be considered not only from the legal but also from the moral point of view; for sound morality prescribes that debts must be paid
Banns of Marriage - In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage
Baptism - One of the Seven Sacraments of the Christian Church; frequently called the 'first sacrament', the 'door of the sacraments', and the 'door of the Church'
Baptismal Font - A basin or vase, serving as a receptacle for baptismal water in which the candidate for baptism is immersed, or over which he is washed, in the ceremony of Christian initiation
Baptismal Vows - The name popularly given to the renunciations required of an adult candidate for baptism just before the sacrament is conferred
Baptistery - The separate building in which the Sacrament of Baptism was once solemnly administered, or that portion of the church-edifice later set apart for the same purpose
Baptists - A Protestant denomination which exists chiefly in English speaking countries and owes its name to its characteristic doctrine and practice regarding baptism
Barat, Madeleine-Sophie - Founder of the Society of the Sacred Heart, d. 1865
Barbara, Saint - Legendary virgin and martyr, first mentioned in the early seventh century. Alleged to have died in the third or fourth century, but date is uncertain and place of martyrdom varies
Barcelona - One of the suffragan dioceses of the Archdiocese of Tarragona
Bardesanes and Bardesanites - Syrian Gnostic or, more correctly, a Syrian poet, astrologist, and philosopher, d. 222, at Edessa
Barjesus - False prophet mentioned in the New Testament
Barlaam and Josaphat - Main characters of a seventh-century Christian legend. Barlaam, a hermit, converted the prince Josaphat to Christianity, despite the efforts of Josaphat's father Abenner to prevent such a thing. Although Barlaam and Josaphat are included in the Roman Martyrology and in the Greek calendar, the story is actually a Christianized version of a legend about Buddha
Barnabas, The Epistle of - Contains no clue to its author nor to those for whom it was intended
Barnabas, Saint - Originally Joseph, styled an Apostle in Holy Scripture, and, like St. Paul, ranked by the Church with the Twelve, though not one of them
Barocco Style - A debased application to architecture of Renaissance features
Bartholomew, Saint - Mentioned in the lists of apostles in the Synoptic Gospels and in Acts, thought to be identical with Nathaniel (mentioned only in the Gospel of John)
Bartholomew's Day Massacre, Saint - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes
Barton, Elizabeth - Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the 'Nun of Kent'
Baruch - The disciple of Jeremiah, and the traditional author of the deuto-canonical book, which bears his name
Basil the Great, Saint - Biographical article on the Bishop of Caesarea, who is one of the Cappadocian Fathers, Doctor of the Church, and brother of St. Gregory of Nyssa
Basil, Liturgy of Saint - Several Oriental liturgies, or at least several anaphoras, have been attributed to the great St. Basil, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia from 370 to 379
Basil, Rule of Saint - St. Basil drew up his Rule for the members of the monastery he founded about 356 on the banks of the Iris in Cappadocia
Basilica - The term can indicate either the architectural style of a church, or its canonical status
Basilides - The earliest of the Alexandrian Gnostics, a native of Alexandria and flourished under the Emperors Adrian and Antoninus Pius, about 120-140
Basle, Council of - Convoked by Pope Martin V in 1431, closed at Lausanne in 1449
Bas-relief - A sculpture executed upon and attached to a flat surface
Basutoland - A mountainous district of South Africa, bounded on the north and west by the Orange River Colony, on the easy by Natal, and on the south by Cape Colony
Battle Abbey - Founded by William the Conqueror on the site of the Battle of Senlae or Hastings (1066)
Bavaria, The Kingdom of - Named after the German tribe called Boiarii
Baylon, Saint Pascal - Aragonese Franciscan lay brother, d. 1592
Beads, Use of, at Prayers - Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians
Beards - Among the Jews, as among most Oriental peoples, the beard was especially cherished as a symbol of virility; to cut off another man's beard was an outrage
Beatific Vision - The immediate knowledge of God which the angelic spirits and the souls of the just enjoy in Heaven
Beatification and Canonization - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis
Beatitudes, Mount of - Name given to the place where the 'Sermon on the Mount', was delivered
Beatitudes, The Eight - The solemn blessings which mark the opening of the Sermon on the Mount
Beauregard, Pierre Gustave Toutant - Soldier, b. near New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A., 28 May, 1818; d. there 20 February, 1893
Becket, Saint Thomas - Biography of this martyr, also known as St. Thomas of Canterbury, where he was archbishop and where he was murdered in 1170
Bede - The old English word bede (Anglo-Saxon bed) means a prayer, though the derivative form, gebed, was more common in this sense in Anglo-Saxon literature
Bede, The Venerable - Benedictine monk, priest, historian, Doctor of the Church, d. 735
Bedlam - A London hospital originally intended for the poor suffering from any ailment and for such as might have no other lodging, hence its name, Bethlehem, in Hebrew, the 'house of bread.'
Beelzebub - Provides an Old and a New Testament definition
Beethoven, Ludwig van - Composer (1770-1827)
Beguines & Beghards - As early as the commencement of the twelfth century there were women in the Netherlands who lived alone, and without taking vows devoted themselves to prayer and good works
Behaim, Martin - A German cartographer and navigator (1459-1507)
Belfry - The upper part of the tower or steeple of a church, for the reception of the bells; or a detached tower containing bells, as the campanile of the Italians
Belgium - Information on the history, education, and cemeteries of the country
Belial - Found frequently as a personal name in the Vulgate and various English translations of the Bible, is commonly used as a synonym of Satan, or the personification of evil
Belief - That state of the mind by which it assents to propositions, not by reason of their intrinsic evidence, but because of authority
Bell, Angelus - The triple Hail Mary recited in the evening, which is the origin of our modern Angelus, was closely associated with the ringing of a bell
Bellarmine, St. Robert - Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal
Bellini - Giacomo (Jacopo) Bellini, father of Gentile and Giovanni Bellini. Teacher of his sons who were the chief founders of the Venetian school of painting
Bells - Article covers origin, benediction, uses, archaeology and inscriptions, and points of law
Belshazzar - The Greek and Latin name for Belshazzar, which is the Hebrew equivalent for Bel-sarra-usur, i.e., 'May Bel protect the king'
Benedict I, Pope - A Roman and the son of Boniface, and was called Bonosus by the Greeks
Benedict II, Saint, Pope - A Roman, he was pope for a little less than eleven months, and died in 685. Account of his pontificate
Benedict III, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 17 April, 858
Benedict IV, Pope - A Roman and the son of Mammalus, became pope in the first half of 900
Benedict V, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 4 July, 965
Benedict VI, Pope - Benedict, Cardinal-Deacon of St. Theodore, a Roman and the son of Hildebrand, was elected as the successor of John XIII
Benedict VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. c. October, 983
Benedict VIII, Pope - The first of the Tusculan popes. Date of birth unknown; d. 9 April, 1024
Benedict IX, Pope - The nephew of his two immediate predecessors
Benedict X - The bearer of this name was an antipope in the days of Nicholas II, 1056-61
Benedict XI, Pope - Elected unanimously, author of Scriptural commentaries, d. 1304
Benedict XII, Pope - Third of the Avignon popes (1334-1342)
Benedict XIII, Pope - Reigned 1724-1730
Benedict XIV, Pope - Reigned 1740-58
Benedict Joseph Labre, Saint - Frenchman, longed to be a monk but spent the last thirteen years of his life as a pilgrim. He died in 1783
Benedict of Nursia, Saint - Long article on the founder of Western monasticism, and on his Rule
Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict
Benedict, Rule of Saint - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application
Benedictine Order - Comprises monks living under the Rule of St. Benedict, and commonly known as 'black monks'
Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament - Description of the basics of this popular devotion. Benediction is unusual in that it is a devotional practice partly governed by liturgical law
Benedictus, The - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis
Benefice - Popularly the term is often understood to denote either certain property destined for the support of ministers of religion, or a spiritual office or function, such as the care of souls
Bengy, Anatole de - A martyr of the French Commune (1824-1871)
Benjamin - The youngest son of Jacob born of Rachel
Benthamism - Article on Jeremy Bentham, English jurist and reformer. Features biographical information and a short bibliography
Benziger, Joseph Charles - Founder of the Catholic publishing house that bears his name (1762-1841)
Berchmans, Saint John - Biography of this Jesuit, always pious, who died in 1621 at the age of 22
Berengarius of Tours - Born at Tours about 999; died on the island of St. Cosme, near that city, in 1088
Bernard, Saint - Soldier, monk, abbot, Archbishop of Vienne, d. 842
Bernard, Claude - French physiologist (1813-1878)
Bernard of Clairvaux, Saint - Article on the life and works of this twelfth-century Cistercian and Doctor of the Church
Bernard of Cluny - A Benedictine monk of the first half of the twelfth century, poet, satirist, and hymn-writer, author of 'On the Contempt of the World'
Bernard of Menthon, Saint - Archdeacon of Aosta, preacher, founder of two hospices for travelers in dangerous Alpine passes (now named the Great St. Bernard and Little St. Bernard, after him), d. 1008
Bernardine of Siena, Saint - Biography of the Franciscan missionary, reformer, popular preacher, peacemaker, called 'the Apostle of Italy,' who died in 1380
Bernini, Giovanni Lorenzo - Italian architect and sculptor (1598-1680)
Berosus - The name of a native historian of Babylonia and a priest of the great god Bel (Bel-Marduk)
Bethany - A village of Palestine
Bethlehem - Birthplace of Jesus
Bethsaida - Details the city, pool, and titular see of this name
Betrothal - In the Catholic Church, a deliberate and free, mutual, true promise, externally expressed, of future marriage between determinate and fit persons
Betting - Defined as the backing of an affirmation or forecast by offering to forfeit, in case of an adverse issue, a sum of money or article of value to one who, by accepting, maintains the opposite and backs his opinion by a corresponding stipulation
Bezae, Codex - Greek, New Testament manuscript
Bibiana, Saint - Female Roman martyr, d. 483 at the latest. Also called Vibiana
Bible, The - A collection of writings recognized as inspired
Bible, Authenticity of the - The authority of Holy Writ is twofold on account of its twofold authorship: human authors and divine inspiration
Bible, Coptic Versions of the - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest
Bible, Editions of the - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions
Bible, Inspiration of the - Covered in four sections, I. Belief in Inspired books; II. Nature of Inspiration; III. Extent of Inspiration; IV. Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible
Bible, Manuscripts of the - Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof
Bibles, Picture - In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching
Biblical Antiquities - Details domestic, political, and sacred antiquities
Biblical Commission, The - A committee of cardinals at Rome who, with the assistance of consultors, have to secure the observance of the prescriptions contained in the Encyclical 'Providentissimus Deus' for the proper interpretation and defence of Sacred Scripture
Bigamy (in Canon Law) - Canonically viewed, bigamy denotes (a) the condition of a man married to two real or interpretative wives in succession, and as a consequence (b) his unfitness to receive, or exercise after reception, tonsure, minor and sacred orders
Bigamy (in Civil Law) - In civil jurisprudence, and especially in criminal law, is a 'formal entering into of a marriage while a former one remains un-dissolved'
Billart, Saint Julie - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816
Bilocation - Latin bis, twice, and locatio, place
Bination - The offering up of the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass twice on the same day by the same celebrant
Biogenesis and Abiogenesis - According to their Greek derivation these two terms refer to the origin of life
Biology - The science on life and living organisms
Birds (in Symbolism) - The dove, eagle, pelican, phoenix, and peacock are included
Biretta - A square cap with three ridges or peaks on its upper surface, worn by clerics of all grades from cardinals downwards
Birth, The Defect of - Illegitimacy, a canonical impediment to ordination
Bishop - The title of an ecclesiastical dignitary who possesses the fullness of the priesthood to rule a diocese as its chief pastor, in due submission to the primacy of the pope
Bishop, Auxiliary - A bishop deputed to a diocesan who, capable of governing and administering his diocese, is unable to perform the pontifical functions; or whose diocese is so extensive that it requires the labors of more than one; or whose episcopal see has attached to it a royal or imperial office requiring protracted presence at court
Bishop's Crook - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Black Fast, The - This form of fasting, the most rigorous in the history of church legislation, was marked by austerity regarding the quantity and quality of food permitted on fasting days as well as the time wherein such food might be legitimately taken
Blackfoot Indians - An important tribe of the Northern Plains, constituting the westernmost extension of the great Algonquian stock
Blaise, Saint - Bishop of Sebaste, martyr, d. about 316
Blasphemy - Signifies etymologically gross irreverence towards any person or thing worthy of exalted esteem
Blessed, The - Beatification is a permission for public worship restricted to certain places and to certain acts
Blessed Sacrament, The - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church
Blessed Sacrament, Exposition of the - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it
Blessed Sacrament, Reservation of the - The practice of preserving after the celebration of the Liturgy a portion of the consecrated elements for the Communion of the sick or for other pious purposes. The extreme antiquity of such reservation cannot be disputed
Blessed Sacrament, Visits to the - A devotional practice of relatively modern development, honoring the Real Presence of Christ
Blessed Virgin Mary, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God
Blessing - Aspects discussed are, I. Antiquity; II. Minister; III. Objects; IV. Efficacy; and V. Rite employed in administering
Blessing, Apostolic - The popes very often delegated to others the power to give this blessing in answer to petitions from princes, at the close of missions, and on such occasions
Blind, Education of the - Includes statistics and history
Blood Indians - A group of North American aborigines forming part of the Blackfeet Tribe, which, with the Apapahoes and Cheyennes, constitute the Western division of the Algonquin family
Bluetooth, Harold - Son of King Gorm the Old of Denmark (911-986)
Bobola, Saint Andrew - Polish Jesuit priest and missionary, martyred in 1657
Boccaccio, Giovanni - Biography and overview of the author's major works
Boethius, Anicius Manlius Severinus - Article with a focus on Boethius as a theologian
Bohemia - Crown province of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which until 1526 was an independent kingdom
Bohemian Brethren - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722
Bohemians of the United States - Religious dissensions at the beginning of the seventeenth century induced many to leave their native country and cross the ocean
Bollandists, The - An association of ecclesiastical scholars engaged in editing the Acta Sanctorum
Bologna, University of - A tradition of the thirteenth century attributed the foundation of this university to Theodosius II (433); but this legend is now generally rejected
Bombay - The Archdiocese of Bombay comprises the Island of Bombay with several outlying churches in the neighbouring Island of Salsette
Bonaventure, Saint - Biobibliographical essay on the Franciscan theologian and Doctor of the Church, d. 1274
Boniface, Saint - Born Winfrid, a native of England, Benedictine monk, the Apostle of Germany, martyred in 755
Boniface I, Pope Saint - Consecrated the same day as the antipope Eulalius. Both were ordered to leave Rome. Eulalius took over St. John Lateran on Holy Saturday, after which the emperor refused to consider his claim. Boniface died in 422
Boniface II, Pope - Elected 17 September, 530; died October, 532
Boniface III, Pope - Roman elected to succeed Sabinian after an interregnum of nearly a year; he was consecrated 19 February, 607; d. 12 November of the same year
Boniface IV, Pope Saint - Transformed the Pantheon into a Christian church, died in 615
Boniface V, Pope - A Neapolitan who succeeded Deusdedit after a vacancy of more than a year; consecrated 23 December, 619
Boniface VI, Pope - A Roman, elected in 896 by the Roman faction in a popular tumult, to succeed Formosus
Boniface VII, Antipope - Roman and son of Ferrucius; was intruded into the Chair of St. Peter in 974; reinstalled 984; died July, 985
Boniface VIII, Pope - Born at Anagni about 1235; died at Rome, 11 October, 1303
Boniface IX, Pope - Elected at Rome, 2 November, 1389, as successor of the Roman Pope, Urban VI; d. there, 1 October, 1404
Book of Common Prayer - Includes history and contents
Book of Kells - An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian canons, known also as the 'Book of Columba'
Book of Martyrs, Foxe's - Protestant martyrology, from Wyclif to Cranmer, illustrated with woodcuts. The author was a controversialist sympathetic to John Knox
Books, Index of Prohibited - The exact list or catalogue of books, the reading of which was once forbidden to Catholics by the highest ecclesiastical authority
Borromeo, Saint Charles - Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation
Borromini, Francesco - Architect and sculptor; born 25 September, 1599, at Bissone; died by his own hand 1 August, 1667, at Rome
Bosco, Saint Giovanni (John) - Commonly called Don Bosco or John Bosco. Founder of the Salesians, d. 1888
Bosnia and Herzegovina - Together, form the north-western corner of the Balkan Peninsula
Bossuet, Jacques-Bénigne - French bishop and orator (1627-1704)
Boston - Archdiocese; comprises Essex, Middlesex, Suffolk, Norfolk, and Plymouth counties in the State of Massachusetts, U.S.A
Botticelli, Sandro - Florentine painter (1447-1510)
Bouvier, Jeanne-Marie, de La Motte-Guyon - Essay on the life, experiences, and teachings of this seventeenth-century French mystic
Boy-Bishop - The custom of electing a boy-bishop on the feast of St. Nicholas dates from very early times, and was in vogue in most Catholic countries, but chiefly in England
Boycotting - Practice named after Captain Boycott, against whom this form of ostracism had great effect
Brahminism - Religion and social system which grew out of the polytheistic nature-worship of the ancient Aryan conquerors of northern India
Braille, Louis - French educator and inventorof the system of writing in raised or relief points for the blind (1809-1852)
Bramante, Donato - Italian architect and painter, b. about 1444 at Monte Asdrualdo; d. in Rome, 11 March, 1514
Brazil - Information includes history, religion, climate, education, and economy
Bread, Liturgical Use of - In the Christian liturgy bread is used principally as one of the elements of the Eucharistic sacrifice
Breads, Altar - Bread is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist
Breast, Striking of the - A liturgical act prescribed in the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Brébeuf, Jean de - Biographical article on the Jesuit missionary and martyr
Brehon Laws, The - Term for Irish native law, as administered in Ireland down to almost the middle of the seventeenth century
Brendan, Saint - Article on St. Brendan of Ardfert and Clonfert, also known as Brendan the Voyager. Monastic founder, d. 577. About half of the article is devoted to St. Brendan's famous voyage
Brethren of the Lord, The - A group of persons closely connected with the Saviour appears repeatedly in the New Testament under the designation 'his brethren' or 'the brethren of the Lord'
Breviary - Evolution of the book, or set of books, containing the texts and rubrics of the canonical hours
Breviary, Reform of the Roman - Article on the 1911-1913 revamping of the breviary so as to allow recitation of all of the Psalter each week. Feasts were also ranked according to liturgical importance, and some offices were no longer obligatory or were even suppressed
Bribery - The payment or the promise of money or other lucrative consideration to induce another, while under the obligation of acting without any view to private emolument, to act as the briber shall prescribe
Bridget of Sweden, Saint - Biography of the mother of 8, widow, visionary, founder of the Brigittines
Briefs and Bulls - A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water
Brigid of Ireland, Saint - Biography. Monastic founder, abbess of a double monastery, friend of St. Patrick. St. Brigid died in 525
Brigittines - Founded in 1346 by St. Brigit, or Bridget, of Sweden at Vadstena in the Diocese of Linkoeping
Brooklyn - Comprises the counties of Kings, Queens, Nassau, and Suffolk, or all of Long Island, in the State of New York, U.S.A
Brownson, Orestes Augustus - Philosopher, essayist, reviewer, b. at Stockbridge, Vermont, U.S.A., 16 September, 1803; d. at Detroit, Michigan, 17 April, 1876
Brunellesco, Filippo - An architect and sculptor, born at Florence, 1377; died there 16 April, 1446
Bruni, Leonardo - Article by Edmund Burke, summarizing the humanist's life and career
Bruno, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Carthusians
Bruno, Giordano - Italian philosopher (1548-1600)
Buddhism - The religious, monastic system, founded c. 500 B.C. on the basis of pantheistic Brahminism
Buildings, Ecclesiastical - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica
Bulgaria - A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula
Bull-Fight, The Spanish - Includes details of three kinds of bull-fights: (1) caballerescas, (2) populares, and (3) gladiatorias
Bulls and Briefs - A bulla was originally a circular plate or boss of metal, so called from its resemblance in form to a bubble floating upon water
Buonarroti, Michelangelo - Italian sculptor, painter, and architect (1475-1564)
Burgundy - In medieval times respectively a kingdom and a duchy, later a province of France
Burial, Christian - The interment of a deceased person with ecclesiastical rites in consecrated ground
Burse - A receptacle in which, for reasons of convenience xnd reverence, the folded corporal is carried to and from the altar
Buskins - Ceremonial stockings of silk, sometimes interwoven with gold threads, and even heavily embroidered, worn by the celebrant of a pontifical Mass
Butler, Alban - Seventeenth-century English Catholic
Buttress - A pilaster, pier, or body of masonry projecting beyond the main face of the wall and intended to strengthen the wall at particular points
Byrd, William - Article examining life, sacred and secular music, and related composers
Byzantine Architecture - A mixed style, i.e. a style composed of Graeco-Roman and Oriental elements which, in earlier centuries, cannot be clearly separated
Byzantine Art - The art of the Eastern Roman Empire and of its capital Byzantium, or Constantinople
Byzantine Empire, The - Term employed to designate the Eastern survival of the ancient Roman Empire
Byzantine Rite - The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople

C

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Cabeza de Vaca, Alvar Nuñez - Born at Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain; dates of birth and death uncertain
Cabot, John & Sebastian - Navigators and explorers
Cabral, Pedralvarez - Portuguese navigator (b. 1460)
Cabrillo, Estévan - Sixteenth century sailor
Cadalous - Bishop and antipope (d. 1072)
Caddo Indians - In the earlier period they were commonly known to the Spaniards as Tejas, whence the name of the State, and to the French as Cenis or Assinais
Cædmon, Saint - Article on the laborer for the double monastery of Whitby, composer of hymns and other Biblical poems in Anglo-Saxon, who died between 670 and 680
Cæsarea Philippi - A Greek Catholic residential see, and a Latin titular see, in Syria
Cæsarius of Arles, Saint - Bishop, theologian, renowned as a popular preacher, wrote two monastic rules, died 543
Caiaphas - Jewish High Priest
Cain - First-born of Adam and Eve
Cainites - A name used for (1) the descendants of Cain, (2) a sect of Gnostics and Antinomians
Caiphas - Jewish High Priest
Caius - Third-century Christian author
Caius and Soter, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April
Cajetan, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines
Cajetan, Tommaso de Vio Gaetani - Domincan cardinal, philosopher, theologian, and exegete (1469-1534)
Calasanctius, Saint Joseph - Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648
Calatrava, Military Order of - Founded in Castile, in the twelfth century, as a military branch of the great Cistercian family
Calcutta - Extends along the sea-coast from the Khabadak to the Mahanundi River
Caleb - Six people with this name are described
Calendar, Christian - Includes history and Saint's days
Calendar, Jewish - Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras
Calendar, Reform of the - Such alterations were too obvious to be ignored, and throughout the Middle Ages many observers both pointed them out and endeavoured to devise a remedy
California Missions - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California
Callistus I, Pope - Martyr, d. about 223. Also known as Callixtus or Calixtus
Callistus II, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 13 December, 1124
Callistus III, Pope - Born near Valencia in Spain, 31 December, 1378; died at Rome, 6 August, 1458
Calumny - Etymologically any form of ruse or fraud employed to deceive another, particularly in judicial proceedings
Calvary, Mount - The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
Calvert, George - First Lord Baltimore, statesman and colonizer (1580-1632)
Calvert, Cecilius - Second Lord Baltimore (1606-1675)
Calvin, John - Born at Noyon in Picardy, France, 10 July, 1509, and died at Geneva, 27 May, 1564
Calvinism - Calvin succeeded Luther in point of time and was committed to a struggle with Zwingli's disciples at Zurich and elsewhere, known as Sacramentarians
Camaldolese - A joint order of hermits and cenobites, founded by St. Romuald at the beginning of the eleventh century
Camerlengo - The title of certain papal officials
Camillus de Lellis, Saint - Biographical article on founder of a religious order devoted to care of the sick and dying
Camões, Luis Vaz de - Epic poet, born in 1524 or 1525; died 10 June, 1580
Campion, Saint Edmund - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article
Cana - A city of Galilee, Palestine
Canaan, Canaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person
Canada - Comprises all that part of North America north of the United States, with the exception of Newfoundland, and Labrador
Canada, Catholicity in - Treated under three headings: I. Period of French domination, from the discovery of Canada to the Treaty of Paris, in 1763; II. Period of British rule, from 1763 to the present day; III. Present conditions
Candace - Ethiopian queen
Candle, Paschal - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday
Candlemas - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple
Candles - The word candle (candela, from candeo, to burn) was introduced into the English language as an ecclesiastical term, probably as early as the eighth century
Candles, Altar - For mystical reasons the Church prescribes that the candles used at Mass and at other liturgical functions be made of beeswax
Candlestick, Seven-Branch - One of the three chief furnishings of the Holy of the Tabernacle and the Temple. In reality it was an elaborate lampstand, set on the south side of the Holy Place
Candlesticks - Provides the history of their use in Christian churches
Candlesticks, Altar - Consists of five parts: the foot, the stem, the knob about the middle of the stem, the bowl to receive the drippings of wax, and the pricket, i.e. the sharp point that terminates the stem on which the candle is fixed
Canice, Saint - Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600
Canisius, Peter, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597
Canon - Ecclesiastical person
Canon - Musical term, the strictest of all contrapuntal forms
Canoness - The assistance of women in the work of the Church goes back to the earliest time, and their uniting together for community exercises was a natural development of religious worship
Canon of the Mass - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations
Canon of the Old Testament - Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church
Canon of the New Testament - The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history
Canon Law - Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members
Canonical Hours - Essay on the practice of reciting the Divine Office according to set hours
Canonization and Beatification - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis
Canons, Apostolic - A collection of ancient ecclesiastical decrees concerning the government and discipline of the Christian Church, incorporated with the Apostolic Constitutions
Canons, Ecclesiastical - Certain rules or norms of conduct or belief prescribed by the Church
Canons and Canonesses Regular - According to St. Thomas Aquinas, a canon regular is essentially a religious cleric
Canopy - An ornamental covering of cloth, stone, wood, or metal, used to crown an altar, throne, pulpit, or statue
Canova, Antonio - Italian sculptor (1757-1822)
Canterbury - The Ancient Diocese of Canterbury was the Mother-Church and Primatial See of All England, from 597 till the death of the last Catholic Archbishop, Cardinal Pole, in 1558
Canticle - Used in the English Catholic translation of the Bible as the equivalent of the Vulgate canticum in most, but not all, of the uses of that word; for where canticum is used for a sacred song
Canticle of Canticles - One of three books of Solomon, contained in the Hebrew, the Greek, and the Christian Canon of the Scriptures
Canticle of Simeon - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32
Canticle of Zachary - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis
Cantor - The chief singer (and sometimes instructor) of the ecclesiastical choir, called also precentor
Canute - King of the English, Danes, and Norwegians, b. about 994; d. at Shaftesbury, 12 November 1035
Capharnaum - A titular see of Palestine
Capital Punishment - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime.
Captivities of the Israelites - Includes the Assyrian, Babylonian, and Roman captivities
Capuchin Friars Minor - An autonomous branch of the first Franciscan Order
Caracalla - Roman Emperor, son of Septimius Severus and Julia Domna, b. 188; d. 217
Carbonari - The name of a secret political society, which played an important part, chiefly in France and Italy, during the first decades of the nineteenth century
Cardinal - A dignitary of the Roman Church and counsellor of the pope
Cardinal Virtues - The four principal virtues upon which the rest of the moral virtues turn or are hinged
Carem - Name of a town in the Tribe of Juda
Caribs - Next to the Arawaks, probably the most numerous Indian stock, of more or less nomadic habits, in South America
Carlovingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court
Carmel, Mount - A well-known mountain ridge in Palestine, usually called in the Hebrew Bible Hakkarmel
Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of Mount - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386
Carmelite Order, The - One of the mendicant orders
Carolingian Schools - Established under the Merovingian Kings, a school, scola palatina, the chroniclers of the eighth century styled it for the training of the young Frankish nobles in the art of war and in the ceremonies of the court
Carracci - Italian painter, engraver, and etcher, b. at Bologna, 16 August, 1557; d. at Parma, 22 March, 1602
Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton - American statesman (1737-1832)
Carroll, John - First American bishop (1735-1815)
Cartagena - Suffragan of Granada in Spain since the concordat of 1851, previously of Toledo
Carthage - Founded by Phoenician colonists, and long the great opponent of Rome in the duel for supremacy, was destroyed by a Roman army, 146 B.C. A little more than a century later (44 B.C.), a new city composed of Roman colonists was founded on the site
Carthusian Order, The - The name is derived from the French chartreuse through the Latin cartusia, of which the English 'charterhouse' is a corruption
Cartier, Jacques - The discoverer of Canada, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, in 1491; d. 1 September, 1557
Casas, Bartolomé de las - Born at Seville, probably in 1474; d. at Madrid, 1566
Cashel - A town in the County Tipperary, Ireland, which is also a Catholic archbishopric and the see of a Protestant bishop
Casimir, Saint - Prince of Poland, remained unmarried by choice, d. in 1484 at the age of 25
Cassian, John - Article on the monk and ascetic writer, who attempted to convey the teaching and way of life of the desert fathers and mothers to the fledgling monastic movement in Gaul
Cassini, Giovanni Domenico - Italian astronomer (1625-1712)
Cassiodorus - Roman writer, statesman, and monk, b. about 490; d. about 583
Castile and Aragon - The united kingdom which came into existence by the marriage (1469) of Isabella, heiress of Castile, with Ferdinand the Catholic, King of Aragon
Casuistry - The application of general principles of morality to definite and concrete cases of human activity, for the purpose, primarily, of determining what one ought to do, or ought not to do, or what one may do or leave undone as one pleases; and for the purpose, secondarily, of deciding whether and to what extent guilt or immunity from guilt follows on an action already posited
Catacombs, Roman - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome
Catafalque - Derived from the Italian word catafalco, literally means a scaffold or elevation, but in its strictly liturgical sense the word is employed to designate the cenotaph-like erection which is used at the exequial offices of the Church, and takes the place of the bier whenever the remains are not present
Catechesis - The word katechesis means instruction by word of mouth, especially by questioning and answering. The Apostle insists upon 'doctrine' as one of the most important duties of a bishop
Catechism, Roman - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism
Catechumen - In the early Church, was the name applied to one who had not yet been initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was undergoing a course of preparation for that purpose
Categorical Imperative - A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics
Cathari - From the Greek katharos, pure, literally 'puritans', a name specifically applied to, or used by, several sects at various periods
Cathedra - Three uses of the word are detailed
Cathedral - The chief church of a diocese
Cathedraticum - A certain sum of money to be contributed annually for the support of the bishop, as a mark of honour and in sign of subjection to the cathedral church, hence its name
Catherine de' Medici - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France
Catherine de' Ricci, Saint - Biography of the cloistered Third Order Dominican nun, mystic, who died in 1590
Catherine of Alexandria, Saint - Article on the virgin and martyr. In the Middle Ages, one of the most popular saints
Catherine of Bologna, Saint - Short biography of this Poor Clare, mystic, and writer, who died in 1463
Catherine of Genoa, Saint - Biography of the mystic and author, who died in 1510
Catherine of Siena, Saint - Third Order Dominican, hermit, reformer, mystic, d. 1380. Biographical article by Edmund G. Gardner
Catherine of Sweden, Saint - Daughter of St. Bridget of Sweden. Widow, pilgrim, superior of the Brigittine motherhouse, d. 1381. Biographical article
Catholic - The combination 'the Catholic Church' (he katholike ekklesia) is found for the first time in the letter of St. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans, written about the year 110
Catholic Epistle - The name given to the Epistle of St. James, to that of St. Jude, to two Epistles of St. Peter and the first three of St. John, because, unlike the Epistles of St. Paul, they were addressed not to any particular person or church, but to the faithful generally after the manner of an Encyclical letter
Catholicos - The ecclesiastical title of the Nestorian and Armenian patriarchs
Cause - Cause, as the correlative of effect, is understood as being that which in any way gives existence to, or contributes towards the existence of, any thing; which produces a result; to which the origin of any thing is to be ascribed
Caxton, William - Born in the Weald of Kent, c. 1422; died at Westminster, 1491; the first English printer and the introducer of the art of printing into England
Cayetano, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines
Cecilia, Saint - Virgin and martyr; patroness of church music
Cedar - A coniferous tree frequently mentioned in the Bible
Celebret - A letter which a bishop gives to a priest, that he may obtain permission in another diocese to say Mass, and for this purpose bears testimony that he is free from canonical censures
Celestine I, Pope Saint - Excommunicated Nestorius, sent St. Patrick to Ireland, d. 432
Celestine II, Pope - Reigned 1143-1144
Celestine III, Pope - The first Orsini pope (b. 1106) who reigned 1191-1198
Celestine IV, Pope - Reigned October-November 1241
Celestine V, Pope Saint - Benedictine priest and hermit, d. 1296
Celibacy of the Clergy - The renunciation of marriage implicitly or explicitly made, for the more perfect observance of chastity, by all those who receive the Sacrament of Orders in any of the higher grades
Celsus the Platonist - An eclectic Platonist and polemical writer against Christianity, who flourished towards the end of the second century
Celtic Rite, The - The term 'Celtic Rite' is generally, but rather indefinitely, applied to the various rites in use in Great Britain, Ireland, perhaps in Brittany, and sporadically in Northern Spain, and in the monasteries which resulted from the Irish missions of St. Columbanus in France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, at a time when rites other than the then existing rite of Rome were used, wholly or partially, in those places
Cemeteries - The word coemeterium or cimiterium (in Gr. koimeterion) may be said in early literature to be used exclusively of the burial places of Jews and Christians
Cemeteries, Early Roman Christian - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome
Censer - A vessel suspended by chains, and used for burning incense at solemn Mass, Vespers, Benediction, processions, and other important offices of the Church
Censorship of Books - Either ecclesiastical or civil, according as it is practiced by the spiritual or secular authority, and it may be exercised in two ways, viz.: before the printing or publishing of a work, by examining it (censura praevia); and after the printing or publishing, by repressing or prohibiting it (censura repressiva)
Centre (Party), The - This name is given to a political party in the German Reichstag and to a number of parties in the diets of the various states of the German Empire
Centurion - A Roman officer commanding a century or company, the strength of which varied from fifty to one hundred men
Ceremony - In liturgy, an external action, gesture, or movement which accompanies the prayers and public exercise of divine worship
Cerinthus - A Gnostic-Ebionite heretic, contemporary with St. John; against whose errors on the divinity of Christ the Apostle is said to have written the Fourth Gospel
Certitude - The word indicates both a state of mind and a quality of a proposition, according as we say, 'I am certain', or, 'It is certain'
Cervantes Saavedra, Miguel de - Spanish author (1547-1616)
Ceylon - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge
Chair of Peter - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City
Chalcedon, Council of - The Fourth Ecumenical Council, held in 451, from 8 October until 1 November inclusive, at Chalcedon, a city of Bithynia in Asia Minor
Chaldean Christians - The name of former Nestorians now reunited with the Roman Church
Chalice - Occupies the first place among sacred vessels, and by a figure of speech the material cup is often used as if it were synonymous with the Precious Blood itself
Chamberlain - The title of certain papal officials
Champlain, Samuel de - Founder of Quebec (1570-1635)
Chanaan, Chanaanites - The Hebrew word Kenaan, denoting a person
Chancel - Part of the choir near the altar of a church, where the deacons or sub-deacons stand to assist the officiating priest
Chancery, Diocesan - That branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government of a diocese
Chanel, Peter-Louis-Marie, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841
Chant, Gregorian - Short description and history, with links to more information
Chant, Plain - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant
Chantal, Saint Jane Frances de - Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641
Chapel - When St. Martin divided his military cloak (cappa) and gave half to the beggar at the gate of Amiens, he wrapped the other half round his shoulders, thus making of it a cape (capella). This cape, or its representative, was afterwards preserved as a relic and accompanied the Frankish kings in their wars, and the tent which sheltered it became known also as cappella or capella. In this tent Mass was celebrated by the military chaplains (capellani). When at rest in the palace the relic likewise gave its name to the oratory where it was kept, and subsequently any oratory where Mass and Divine service were celebrated was called capella, chapelle, chapel
Chaplain - Discusses the types including court, beneficed, parochial, domestic, pontifical, and military
Chaplets (Prayer Beads) - Essay on chaplets, rosaries, prayer ropes, prayer cords. Brief treatment of the use of beads in prayer by non-Christians
Chapter - Designates certain corporate ecclesiastical bodies, said to be derived from the chapter of the rule book, which it was the custom to read in the assemblies of monks
Character - A consideration of the term as it is used in psychology and ethics
Character, Sacramental - Indicates a special effect produced by three of the sacraments, viz. Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy orders
Charismata - The spiritual graces and qualifications granted to every Christian to perform his task in the Church
Charity and Charities - In its widest and highest sense, charity includes love of God as well as love of man
Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Corinthians 13:13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul - A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy
Charity, Sisters of, of St. Vincent de Paul (New York) - Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier
Charity, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Charlemagne - Biography of the emperor covering his political, military, and religious entanglements
Charles V, Emperor - Born at Ghent, 1500; died at Yuste, in Spain, 1558; was a descendant of the house of Hapsburg, and to this descent owed his sovereignty over so many lands that it was said of him that the sun never set on his dominions
Charles Borromeo, Saint - Biographical article on the Archbishop of Milan, Cardinal, a leading light of the Catholic Reformation
Charles Martel - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741
Charterhouse - From the fact that St. Bruno founded the first house of his austere order at Chartreux, near Grenoble, the institution has ever since been known by the name of that place
Chartres - Diocese in France. Comprises the department of Eure-et-Loir
Chartreuse, La Grande - The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine
Chastity - The virtue which excludes or moderates the indulgence of the sexual appetite
Chasuble - Called in Latin casula planeta or paenula, and in early Gallic sources amphibalus, the principal and most conspicuous Mass vestment, covering all the rest
Chateaubriand, François-René - French writer, b. at Saint-Malo, Brittany, 4 September, 1768; d. at Paris, 4 July, 1848
Chaucer, Geoffrey - Summary of the author's life and literary contributions
Cherokee Indians - The largest and most important tribe of Iroquoian stock of the southern section of the United States, and formerly holding the whole southern Alleghany mountain region of North and South Carolina, Georgia and Tennessee, with considerable portions of Alabama, Virginia and Kentucky
Cherubim - Angelic beings or symbolic representations thereof, mentioned frequently in the Old Testament and once in the New Testament
Cheyenne - Diocese established 9 August, 1887
Chibchas - In the beginning of the sixteenth century they occupied what is now the departments of Boyaca and Cundinamarca with, possible, a few outlying settlements
Chicago, Archdiocese of - Diocese created 28 November, 1842; raised to the rank of an archdiocese, 10 September, 1880
Children of Mary - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast
China - Includes history, government, education, and religion
China, The Church in - The introduction of Christianity into China has been ascribed not only to the Apostle of India, St. Thomas, but also to St. Bartholomew
China, History of - Discusses the origin of the Chinese
Chippewa Indians - The popular name is a corruption of Ojibwa, a name of uncertain etymology, but generally supposed to refer to the 'puckered up' appearance of the seam along the front of the tribal moccasin
Chi-Rho (Labarum) - The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, 'De mortibus persecutorum', 44), was known in antiquity
Chivalry - Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious
Choctaw Indians - An important tribe or confederacy of Muskogean stock formerly holding most of Southern Alabama and Mississippi, with adjoining portions of Louisiana
Choir - Church architecture term. Strictly speaking, the choir is that part of the church where the stalls of the clergy are
Choir - A body of singers entrusted with the musical parts of the Church service, and organized and instructed for that purpose
Chorepiscopi - A name originally given in the Eastern Church to bishops whose jurisdiction was confined to rural districts
Chrism - A mixture of oil of olives and balsam, blessed by a bishop in a special manner and used in the administration of certain sacraments and in the performance of certain ecclesiastical functions
Christ, Jesus - The incarnate Son of God and the redeemer of the human race
Christ, Agony of - The word is used only once in Sacred Scripture (Luke 22:43) to designate the anguish of Our Lord in the Garden of Gethsemani
Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type
Christ, Chronology of the Life of - Includes absolute and relative chronologies
Christ, Early Historical Documents on - Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources
Christ, Genealogy of - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke
Christ, Holy Name of - Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately
Christ, Knowledge of - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ
Christ, Order of the Knights of - A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple Christ, Temptation of - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence
Christ, Virgin Birth of - The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son
Christendom - In its wider sense this term is used to describe the part of the world which is inhabited by Christians
Christendom, Union of - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it
Christian Archæology - That branch of the science which is the study of ancient Christian monuments
Christian Art - Also called ecclesiastical art
Christian Brothers - A society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor
Christian Brothers of Ireland - An institute founded at Waterford, Ireland, in 1802, by Edmund Ignatius Rice, a merchant of that city
Christian Doctrine, Confraternity of - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction
Christianity - An account is given of Christianity as a religion, describing its origin, its relation to other religions, its essential nature and chief characteristics, but not dealing with its doctrines in detail nor its history as a visible organization
Christina Alexandra - Queen of Sweden. Biographical article by P. Wittman
Christine de Pisan - Biography, including a list of her major poetic and historical works
Christmas - Provides a detailed overview of the holiday from the fourth century through the modern age. Includes links to related topics
Christology - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ
Christopher, Saint - Article on this martyr, probably of the third century. Although Christopher has been a center of popular legend since the sixth century, all that can be known for certain is that he was a great martyr
Christopher, Pope - Reigned 903-904
Chronicle of Eusebius - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons'
Chronicles (Paralipomenon), Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity.
Chronology, Biblical - Deals with the dates of the various events recorded in the Bible
Chronology, General - Mathematical chronology determines the units to be employed in measuring time, and historical chronology which fixes in the general course of time the position of any particular occurrence, or, as it is generally termed, its date
Chrysostom, Saint John - Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church
Church, The - The term church is the name employed in the Teutonic languages to render the Greek ekklesia (ecclesia), the term by which the New Testament writers denote the society founded by Jesus Christ
Church and State - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto
Churching of Women - A blessing given by the Church to mothers after recovery from childbirth
Church Maintenance - The proper support of church edifices and church institutions
Ciborium - A chalice-like vessel used to contain the Blessed Sacrament
Cid, El - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen
Cincinnati - Archdiocese in the state of Ohio
Cincture - More commonly called in England, the girdle is an article of liturgical attire which has been recognized as such since the ninth century
Circumcision - The Hebrew word, like the Greek (peritome), and the Latin (circumcisio), signifies a cutting and, specifically, the removal of the prepuce, or foreskin, from the penis
Circumcision, Feast of the - As Christ wished to fulfil the law and to show His descent according to the flesh from Abraham. He, though not bound by the law, was circumcised on the eighth day (Luke 2:21), and received the sublime name expressive of His office, Jesus, i.e. Saviour
Cistercians - Religious of the Order of Citeaux, a Benedictine reform, established at Citeaux in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme in the Diocese of Langres, for the purpose of restoring as far as possible the literal observance of the Rule of St. Benedict
Cistercian Sisters - The first Cistercian monastery for women was established at Tart in the Diocese of Langres (now Dijon), in the year 1125, by sisters from the Benedictine monastery of Juilly, and with the co-operation of St. Stephen Harding, Abbot of Citeaux
Cîteaux, Abbey of - Founded in 1098 by St. Robert, Abbot of Molesme, in a deserted and uninhabited part of the Diocese of Chalons-sur Saone
Civil Allegiance - The duty of loyalty and obedience which a person owes to the State of which he is a citizen
Civil Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Civil Marriage - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution
Clairvaux, Abbey of - The third daughter of Citeaux and mother in the fourth line of numerous and celebrated monasteries, founded in 1115 by St. Bernard, in a deep valley upon the bank of the Aube, and known as the Vallee d'Absinthe
Clandestinity (in Canon Law) - Strictly speaking, clandestinity signifies a matrimonial impediment introduced by the Council of Trent to invalidate marriages contracted at variance with the exigencies of the decree 'Tametsi', commonly so called because the first word of the Latin text is tametsi
Clare of Assisi, Saint - Cofounded the 'Poor Clares' with St. Francis. She died in 1253
Clare of Montefalco, Saint - Abbess, claimed by both the Franciscans and the Augustinians, d. 1308
Claret y Clará, Saint Antonio María - Spanish priest and missionary, founder of the Congregation of the Missionary Sons of the Immaculate Heart of Mary (better known as the Claretians), d. 1870
Claude de la Colombière, Saint - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682
Claver, Saint Peter - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654
Clean and Unclean - The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral
Cleef, Joost van - Flemish painter (1520-1556)
Clement I, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on Clement I, also called Clemens Romanus, the fourth pope and the first of the Apostolic Fathers
Clement II, Pope - Reigned 1046-47
Clement III, Pope - Reigned 1187-1191
Clement IV, Pope - Reigned 1265-68
Clement V, Pope - Reigned 1305-14
Clement VI, Pope - Born 1291 in the castle of Maumont, departmentof Correze, France, elected pope, 7 May, 1342, at Avignon, where he died 6 December, 1352
Clement VII, Pope - Reigned 1523-34
Clement VIII, Pope - Reigned 1592-1605
Clement IX, Pope - Reigned 1667-1669
Clement X, Pope - Reigned 1670-1676
Clement XI, Pope - Reigned 1700-1721
Clement XII, Pope - Reigned 1730-1740
Clement XIII, Pope - Reigned 1758-69
Clement XIV, Pope - Reigned 1769-1774
Clement, John - President of the College of Physicians and tutor to St. Thomas More's children, born in Yorkshire about 1500; died 1 July, 1572
Clementines - The name given to the religious romance in two forms as composed by Pope St. Clement I
Clement of Alexandria - Fairly lengthy article on his life and writings
Cleophas - According to the Catholic English versions the name of two persons mentioned in the New Testament. In Greek, however, the names are different, one being Cleopas, abbreviated form of Cleopatros, and the other Clopas
Clerestory - A term formerly applied to any window or traceried opening in a church, e. g. in an aisle, tower, cloister, or screen, but now restricted to the windows in an aisled nave, or to the range of wall in which the high windows are set
Cleric - A person who has been legitimately received into the ranks of the clergy
Clericis Laicos - The initial words of a Bull issued 25 Feb., 1296, by Boniface VIII in response to an earnest appeal of the English and French prelates for protection against the intolerable exactions of the civil power
Cletus, Pope Saint - Third pope, a martyr, d. about 91. May be the same person as Pope St. Cletus
Cletus, Pope Saint - Says that 'Cletus' is only another form of 'Anacletus,' briefly explains how the error of thinking the two names are two different popes came about, says that Cletus died in about 88
Cleveland - The Diocese, established 23 April, 1847, comprises all that part of Ohio lying north of the southern limits of the Counties of Columbiana, Stark, Wayne, Ashland, Richland, Crawford, Wyandot, Hancock, Allen, and Van Wert, its territory covering thirty-six counties
Clitherow, Saint Margaret - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests
Cloister - The English equivalent of the Latin word clausura (from claudere, 'to shut up')
Cloths, Altar - The custom of using three altar-cloths began probably in the ninth century, but at present it is of strict obligation for the licit celebration of Mass
Clotilda, Saint - Queen of the Franks, wife of King Clovis I and grandmother of St. Cloud. Devoted to St. Martin of Tours and instrumental in the conversion of the Franks, she died in 545
Clovis - King of the Salic Franks (466-511)
Cloyne, Diocese of - Comprises the northern half of County Cork
Cluny, Congregation of - The earliest reform, which became practically a distinct order, within the Benedictine family
Codex - The name given to a manuscript in leaf form, distinguishing it from a roll
Codex Alexandrinus - Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, so named because it was brought to Europe from Alexandria and had been the property of the patriarch of that see
Codex Bezae - Greek, New Testament manuscript
Codex Sinaiticus - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf
Codex Vaticanus - A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century
Co-education - The term is now generally reserved to the practice of educating the sexes together; but even in this sense it has a variety of meanings
Coemgen, Saint - Abbot of Glendalough, d. 618
Colette, Saint - Founder of the Colettine Poor Clares (Clarisses), d. 1447
Coliseum, The - Known as the Flavian Amphitheatre, commenced A.D. 72 by Vespasian, the first of the Flavian emperors, dedicated by Titus A.D. 80
Collect - The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers
College- The word college, from the Latin collegium, originally signified a community, a corporation, an organized society, a body of colleagues, or a society of persons engaged in some common pursuit
Cologne - German city and archbishopric
Colombia - Forms the north-west corner of the South American Continent
Colombière, Saint Claude de la - Jesuit missionary, ascetical writer, spiritual director to St. Margaret Mary Alacoque. He died in 1682
Colonna - A celebrated family which played an important role in Italy during medieval and Renaissance times
Colonna, Vittoria - Italian poet, born at Marino, 1490; died at Rome, February 25, 1547
Colonnade - A number of columns symmetrically arranged in one or more rows
Colossæ - A titular see of Phrygia in Asia Minor, suppressed in 1894
Colossians, Epistle to the - One of the four Captivity Epistles written by St. Paul during his first imprisonment in Rome
Colours, Liturgical - The Church directs that the vestments worn by ministers, and the drapery used in the decoration of the altar should correspond in colour to that which is prescribed for the Office of the day
Columba, Saint - Also known as Columcille. Long article on the Irish-born monk, founder and abbot of Iona. He died in 597
Columbanus, Saint - Irish-born abbot of Luxeuil and Bobbio, author of a monastic rule and of a penitential, d. 615. Biography
Columbus, Christopher - Lengthy biographical article on the explorer
Column - Architectural term for a supporting pillar
Commandments of the Church - Article includes: I. the nature of the Commandments of the Church in general; II. the history of the Commandments of the Church; and III. their classification
Commandments of God (The Ten Commandments) - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures
Commentaries on the Bible - Includes: I. Jewish Commentaries; II. Patristic; III. Medieval; IV. Modern Catholic; and V. Non-Catholic
Commodus - Roman Emperor, born 161; died at Rome, 31 December, 192
Common Life, Brethren of the - A community founded by Geert De Groote, born at Deventer in Gelderland in 1340; died 1384
Common Prayer, Book of - Includes history and contents
Common Sense, Philosophy of - The term common sense designates (1) a special faculty, the sensus communis of the Aristotelean and Scholastic philosophy; (2) the sum of original principles found in all normal minds; (3) the ability to judge and reason in accordance with those principles (recta ratio, good sense)
Communion, Frequent - Discusses the history and practice
Communion, Holy - By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist
Communion Antiphon - The term Communion is used, not only for the reception of the Holy Eucharist, but also as a shortened form for the antiphon that was originally sung while the people were receiving the Blessed Sacrament
Communion of Children - Article includes (1) the ancient practice, and (2) the present discipline of the Church in regard to the Communion of children
Communion of Saints - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints'
Communion of the Sick - Differs from ordinary Communion as to the class of persons to whom it is administered, as to the dispositions with which it may be received, and as to the place and ceremonies of administration
Communion Rail - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Communion under Both Kinds - Communion under one kind is the reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist under the species or appearance of bread alone, or of wine alone, Communion under two or both kinds, the distinct reception under the two or both species, sub utraque specie, at the same time
Communism - In its more general signification communism refers to any social system in which all property, or at least all productive property, is owned by the group, or community, instead of by individuals
Comnena, Anna - Byzantine historian, eldest daughter of Alexius Comnenus, Emperor of Constantinople (1081-1118)
Compiégne, Teresian Martyrs of - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794
Compline - Scholarly essay on what is essentially a bedtime prayer, often recited privately
Compostela - A famous city of Spain, situated on an eminence between the Sar (the Sars of Pomponius Mela) and Sarela
Concelebration - The rite by which several priests say Mass together, all consecrating the same bread and wine
Conceptualism, Nominalism, Realism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals
Conclave - The closed room or hall specially set aside and prepared for the cardinals when electing a pope; also the assembly of the cardinals for the canonical execution of this purpose
Concordances of the Bible - Lists of Biblical words arranged alphabetically with indications to enable the inquirer to find the passages of the Bible where the words occur
Concordat - In general, a concordat means an agreement, or union of wills, on some matter
Concordat of 1801, The French - This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France
Concubinage - The meaning of the term in Roman law, and consequently in early ecclesiastical records and writings, was much the same; a concubine was a quasi-wife, recognized by law if there was no legal wife
Concupiscence - In its widest acceptation, concupiscence is any yearning of the soul for good; in its strict and specific acceptation, a desire of the lower appetite contrary to reason
Condition - That which is necessary or at least conducive to the actual operation of a cause
Confession, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.
Confession, Seal of - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....'
Confessor - A title of honour to designate of the Faith who had confessed Christ publicly in time of persecution and had been punished with imprisonment, torture, exile, or labour in the mines, remaining faithful in their confession until the end of their lives
Confirmation - Describes its origin from Biblical texts and how it has been handed down through the ages. The rite is briefly described, and the minister, matter, form, recipient, effects, necessity and sponsors are detailed
Confiteor - A general confession of sins; it is used in the Roman Rite at the beginning of Mass and on various other occasions as a preparation for the reception of some grace
Confraternity (Sodality) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety
Confraternity of Christian Doctrine - An association established at Rome in 1562 for the purpose of giving religions instruction
Confucianism - An article by Charles F. Aiken. Reviews the key teachings and history of Confucianism, and its relation to Christianity
Congo - An account written before the annexation of the state by the Belgian government
Congregationalism - The successful establishment of the New England colonies was an event of the utmost importance in the development of Congregationalism, a term preferred by the American Puritans to Independency and gradually adopted by their coreligionists in Great Britain
Congregations, Roman - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome
Conon, Pope - Reigned 686-687
Consanguinity (in Canon Law) - The term here means, within certain limitations defined by the law of nature, the positive law of God, or the supreme authority of State or Church, the blood-relationship (cognatio naturalis), or the natural bond between persons descended from the same stock
Conscience - The individual, as in him customary rules acquire ethical character by the recognition of distinct principles and ideals, all tending to a final unity or goal, which for the mere evolutionist is left very indeterminate, but for the Christian has adequate definition in a perfect possession of God by knowledge and love, without the contingency of further lapses from duty
Conscience, Examination of - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law
Consciousness - In its widest sense it includes all sensations, thoughts, feelings, and volitions, in fact the sum total of mental life
Consecration - An act by which a thing is separated from a common and profane to a sacred use, or by which a person or thing is dedicated to the service and worship of God by prayers, rites, and ceremonies
Consent (in Canon Law) - The deliberate agreement required of those concerned in legal transactions in order to legalize such actions
Consistory, Papal - The origin of the papal consistory is closely connected with the history of the Roman presbytery or body of the Roman clergy
Constance - Formerly the seat of a diocese
Constance, Council of - A (partly) ecumenical council held at Constance, now in the Grand Duchy of Baden, from 5 Nov., 1414, to 22 April, 1418
Constantine, Pope - Reigned 708-715
Constantine the Great - Information on the Roman emperor
Constantine, Donation of - By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle Ages, a forged document of Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church
Constantinople - Capital, formerly of the Byzantine, now of the Ottoman, Empire (As of 1908, when the article was written.)
Constantinople, First Ecumenical Council of - Called in May, 381, by Emperor Theodosius, to provide for a Catholic succession in the patriarchal See of Constantinople, to confirm the Nicene Faith, to reconcile the semi-Arians with the Church, and to put an end to the Macedonian heresy
Constantinople, Second Ecumenical Council of - This council was held at Constantinople (5 May-2 June, 553), having been called by Emperor Justinian. It was attended mostly by Oriental bishops; only six Western (African) bishops were present
Constantinople, Third Ecumenical Council of - The Sixth General Council was summoned in 678 by Emperor Constantine Pogonatus, with a view of restoring between East and West the religious harmony that had been troubled by the Monothelistic controversies
Constantinople, Fourth Ecumenical Council of - The Eighth General Council was opened, 5 October, 869, in the Cathedral of Saint Sophia, under the presidency of the legates of Adrian II
Constantinople, Council of - A particular council held in A.D. 382
Constantinople, Council of, in Trullo - Particular council held in A.D. 692
Constantinople, The Rite of - The Liturgies, Divine Office, forms for the administration of sacraments and for various blessings, sacramentals, and exorcisms, of the Church of Constantinople
Constantius, Flavius Julius - Roman emperor (317-361)
Consubstantiation - This heretical doctrine is an attempt to hold the Real Presence of Christ in the Holy Eucharist without admitting Transubstantiation
Contemplation - The idea of contemplation is connected with that of mystical theology
Contemplative Life - A life ordered in view of contemplation; a way of living especially adapted to lead to and facilitate contemplation, while it excludes all other preoccupations and intents
Continence - Defined as abstinence from even the licit gratifications of marriage
Contingent - Aside from its secondary and more obvious meaning (as, for instance, its qualification of the predicable accident, of a class of modal propositions, and so on), the primary and technically philosophical use of the term is for one of the supreme divisions of being, that is, contingent being, as distinguished from necessary being
Contract - The canonical and moralist doctrine on this subject is a development of that contained in the Roman civil law. In civil law, a contract is defined as the union of several persons in a coincident expression of will by which their legal relations are determined
Contract, The Social - Includes contents and critique
Contractus, Hermann - Chronicler, mathematician, and poet (1013-1054)
Contrition - Lat. contritio, a breaking of something hardened
Contrition, Imperfect - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations
Convent - (1) A religious community of either sex when spoken of in its corporate capacity (2) The buildings in which resides a community of either sex
Convent Schools (Great Britain) - Convent education is treated here not historically but as it is at the present day (Article written in 1908.)
Conventuals, Order of Friars Minor - One of the three separate bodies, forming with the Friars Minor and the Capuchins what is commonly called the First Order of St. Francis
Conversion - Refers to a moral change, a turning or returning to God and to the true religion
Cope - A vestment which may most conveniently be described as a long liturgical mantle, open in front and fastened at the breast with a band or clasp
Copernicus, Nicolaus - Latinized form of Niclas Kopernik, the name of the founder of the heliocentric planetary theory; born at Torun (Thorn), 19 February, 1473, died at Frauenburg, 24 May, 1543
Coptic Persecutions - During the first two centuries the Church of Alexandria seems to have been freer from official persecution at the hands of the Roman Government than its sister churches of Rome and Antioch. . .
Coptic Versions of the Bible - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest
Corinth - A titular archiepiscopal see of Greece
Corinthians, Epistles to the - The historical and internal evidence that they were written by St. Paul is overwhelmingly strong
Cornelius - A centurion of the Italic cohort, whose conversion at Caesarea with his household is related in Acts 10
Cornelius, Pope - Had to contend with the antipope Novatian. When persecution broke out, Cornelius was exiled, and he died a martyr in 253
Corner Stone - Rite regarding the blessing and laying of the Foundation Stone for the building of a church
Cornice - The uppermost division of the entablature, the representative of the roof, of an order, consisting of projecting mouldings and blocks, usually divisible into bed-moulding, corona, and gutter
Coronado, Francisco Vasquez de - Explorer, b. at Salamanca, Spain, 1500; d. in Mexico, 1553
Coronation - Discussed as (I) The Emperors at Constantinople; (II) Visigothic and Celtic Elements; (III) The English Coronation Orders; (IV) The Western Empire and the Roman Pontifical; and (V) Other Ceremonials
Corporal - A square white linen cloth, now usually somewhat smaller than the breadth of an altar, upon which the Sacred Host and chalice are placed during the celebration of Mass
Corpus Christi, Feast of - This feast is celebrated in the Latin Church on the Thursday after Trinity Sunday to solemnly commemorate the institution of the Holy Eucharist
Corpus Juris Canonici - The term corpus here denotes a collection of documents; corpus juris, a collection of laws, especially if they are placed in systematic order
Correction, Fraternal - The admonishing of one's neighbor by a private individual with the purpose of reforming him or, if possible, preventing his sinful indulgence
Cortés, Hernando - Conqueror of Mexico, born at Medellin in Spain c. 1485; died at Castilleja de la Cuesta near Seville, 2 December, 1547
Cosmas and Damian, Saints - Short hagiography of these twins, physicians, and martyrs. They died on 27 September, probably in the year 287
Cosmogony - By this term is understood an account of how the universe (cosmos) came into being (gonia - gegona = I have become). It differs from cosmology, or the science of the universe, in this: that the latter aims at understanding the actual composition and governing laws of the universe as it now exists; while the former answers the question as to how it first came to be
Cosmology - In our day cosmology is a branch of philosophical study, and therefore excludes from its investigation whatever forms the object of the natural sciences
Costume, Clerical - In almost every country and every order of the clergy, the clothing has its own distinctive features
Councils, Ecumenical - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Councils, General - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Councils, Plenary - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods.
Counsels, Evangelical - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed
Counter-Reformation, The - Denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648
Cousin, Germain, Saint - Sickly, pious shepherdess, cruelly treated by her stepmother. St. Germaine died in 1601, at the age of 22
Covenant, Ark of the - A kind of chest, measuring two cubits and a half in length, a cubit and a half in breadth, and a cubit and a half in height
Covetousness - Generally, an unreasonable desire for what we do not possess
Cowl - A hood worn in many religious orders
Creation - Like other words of the same ending, the term creation signifies both an action and the object or effect thereof. Thus, in the latter sense, we speak of the 'kingdoms of creation', 'the whole creation', and so on
Creation, Six Days of - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis
Creationism - (1) In the widest sense, the doctrine that the material of the universe was created by God out of no pre-existing subject (2) Less widely, the doctrine that the various species of living beings were immediately and directly created or produced by God, and are not therefore the product of an evolutionary process
Credence - A small table of wood, marble, or other suitable material placed within the sanctuary of a church and near the wall at the Epistle side, for the purpose of holding the cruets, acolytes' candles, and other utensils required for the celebration of the Holy Sacrifice
Cree - The largest and most important Indian tribe of Canada, and one of the largest north of Mexico
Creed - In general, a form of belief
Creed, Apostles' - A formula containing in brief statements, or 'articles,' the fundamental tenets of Christian belief, and having for its authors, according to tradition, the Twelve Apostles
Creed, Liturgical Use of - The public use of creeds began in connection with baptism, in the Traditio and Redditio symboli, as a preparation for that sacrament, and in the preliminary interrogations
Creed, Nicene - The profession of the Christian Faith common to the Catholic Church, to all the Eastern Churches separated from Rome, and to most of the Protestant denominations.
Cremation - The custom of burning the bodies of the dead
Crib - The crib or manger in which the Infant Saviour was laid after his birth is properly that place in the stable or khan where food for domestic animals is put, formed probably of the same material out of which the grotto itself is hewn
Criticism, Higher - Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day
Criticism, Historical - The art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of the past
Criticism, Textual - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Croatia - Includes history, education, and religion
Crosier - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Cross and Crucifix in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity
Cross and Crucifix in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses
Cross, Sign of the - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross
Cross, The True - (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross
Cross-Bearer - The cleric or minister who carries the processional cross, that is, a crucifix provided with a long staff or handle
Crown, Franciscan - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Crown of Thorns - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence
Crucifix and Cross in Archæology - The sign of the cross, represented in its simplest form by a crossing of two lines at right angles, greatly antedates, in both the East and the West, the introduction of Christianity
Crucifix and Cross in Liturgy - Information on the history and uses
Crucifix, Altar - The principal ornament of the altar
Cruelty to Animals - Includes sections on pagan, Old and New Testament, scholastic, and Catholic perspectives
Cruet - A small vessel used for containing the wine and water required for the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass
Crusades - Expeditions undertaken, in fulfilment of a solemn vow, to deliver the Holy Places from Mohammedan tyranny.
Crypt - The word originally meant a hidden place, natural or artificial, suitable for the concealment of persons or things
Cuba - The largest and westernmost island of the West Indies
Culdees - In the Irish language the word was written Ceile-De, meaning companion, or even spouse, of God, with the Latin equivalent in the plural, Colidei, anglicized into Culdees; in Scotland it was often written Kelidei
Cult, Disparity of - A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the sanctity of the Sacrament of Marriage
Cuncolim, Martyrs of - On Monday, 25 July, 1583 (N.S.), the village of Cuncolim in the district of Salcete, territory of Goa, India, was the scene of the martyrdom of five religious of the Society of Jesus: Fathers Rudolph Acquaviva, Alphonsus Pacheco, Peter Berno, and Anthony Francis, also Francis Aranha, lay brother
Cupola - A spherical ceiling, or a bowl-shaped vault, rising like an inverted cup over a circular, square, or multangular building or any part of it
Curate- Literally, one who has the cure (care) or charge of souls, in which sense it is yet used by the Church of England, 'All Bishops and Curates'
Curé d'Ars - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869
Cure of Souls - Technically, the exercise of a clerical office involving the instruction, by sermons and admonitions, and the sanctification, through the sacraments, of the faithful in a determined district, by a person legitimately a ppointed for the purpose
Curia, Roman - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church
Cursing - In its popular acceptation cursing is often confounded, especially in the phrase 'cursing and swearing', with the use of profane and insulting language; in canon law it sometimes signifies the ban of excommunication pronounced by the Church
Cush - Cush, like the other names of the ethnological table of Genesis, x, is the name of a race, but it has generally been understood to designate also an individual, the progenitor of the nations and tribes known in the ancient world as Cushites
Custom (in Canon Law) - An unwritten law introduced by the continuous acts of the faithful with the consent of the legitimate legislator
Custos - 1) An under-sacristan (2) A superior or an official in the Franciscan order
Cuthbert, Saint- Biography of this soldier, monk, bishop of Lindisfarne, hermit
Cyprian of Toulon, Saint - Bishop of Toulon, student and biographer of St. Caesarius of Arles. Cyprian died in 546
Cyprian of Carthage, Saint - Long article on this bishop and martyr
Cyril and Methodius, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs
Cyril of Alexandria, Saint - Article on this Doctor of the Church, and anti-Nestorian theologian
Cyril of Jerusalem, Saint - Bishop, Doctor of the Church, d. 386

D

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Dagon - A Philistine deity
Dalmatia - A part of the Kingdom of Croatia according to a convention entered into between Croatia and Hungary
Dalmatic - The outer liturgical vestment of the deacon
Damascus - It is mentioned in the Bible at the time of Abraham ; xv, 2); also on the pylons of Karnak, among the Syrian cities captured by the Pharaoh Touthmes III
Damasus I, Saint, Pope - Damasus, who had to contend with an antipope, condemned Apollinarianism, and persuaded St. Jerome to undertake the revision of the Latin Bible, died in 384
Damasus II, Pope - A native of Bavaria and the third German to be elevated to the See of Peter
Damian and Cosmas, Saints - Short hagiography of these twins, physicians, and martyrs. They died on 27 September, probably in the year 287
Damien, Father (Joseph de Veuster) - Biography of the Belgian missionary priest to the leper colony on Molokai
Dan - The fifth son of Jacob, being the elder of the two sons born to him by Bala, the handmaid of Rachel, and the eponymous ancestor of the tribe bearing the same name
Dance of Death - Originally a species of spectacular play akin to the English moralities. It has been traced back to the middle of the fourteenth century
Dancing - The origin of dancing is from the natural tendency to employ gesture either to supplement or to replace speech
Daniel - The hero and traditional author of the book which bears his name
Daniel, Anthony - Huron missionary, born at Dieppe, in Normandy, 27 May 1601, slain by the Iroquois
Daniel, Book of - In the Hebrew Bible, and in most recent Protestant versions, the Book of Daniel is limited to its proto-canonical portions. In the Septuagint, the Vulgate, and many other ancient and modern translations of the Bible, it comprises both its proto- and its deutero-canonical parts, both of which have an equal right to be considered as inspired, and to be included in a treatment of the Book of Daniel
Daniel and Companions, Saint - Franciscan missionaries and martyrs, d. 10 October, 1227
Dante Alighieri - An annotated (in linked hypertext) biography of the poet
Darboy, Georges - Archbishop of Paris and ecclesiastical writer, b. at Fayl-Billot, near Langres, 1813; killed by Communists at Paris, 24 May, 1871
Dates and Dating - In classical Latin even before the time of Christ it was usual for correspondents to indicate when and where their letters were written
David, Saint - Also known as Dewi or Degui. Biography of this bishop and confessor, the patron saint of Wales
David, King - In the Bible the name David is borne only by the second king of Israel, the great-grandson of Boaz and Ruth
Day of Atonement - A most solemn fast, on which no food could be taken throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden
Deaconesses - Offers history and functions
Deacons - The name means only minister or servant, and is employed in this sense both in the Septuagint (though only in the book of Esther, and in the New Testament
Dead, Prayers for the - Catholic teaching regarding prayers for the dead is bound up inseparably with the doctrine of purgatory and the more general doctrine of the communion of the saints, which is an article of the Apostle's Creed
Dead Sea - The name given to the lake that lies on the south-eastern border of Palestine
Deaf, Education of the - History, aids, and alphabets are discussed
Dean - One of the principal administrative officials of a diocese
Death, Dance of - Originally a species of spectacular play akin to the English moralities. It has been traced back to the middle of the fourteenth century
Death, Preparation for - Includes the steps taken, such as calling a priest, winding up earthly affairs, and confession
Death Penalty - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime.
Debbora - Prophetess and judge, wife of Lapidoth and endowed by God with prophetic gifts which secured for her the veneration of the divided Israelitic tribes and gave her great authority over them
Debt - That which is owed or due to another; in general, anything which one person is under an obligation to pay or render to another
Decalogue - The term employed to designate the collection of precepts written on two tables of stone and given by God to Moses on Mount Sinai
Decapolis - Name given in the Bible and by ancient writers to a region in Palestine lying to the east and south of the Sea of Galilee
Decius - Roman Emperor 249-251
Decorations, Pontifical - The titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other marks of honour and distinction which the papal court confers upon men of unblemished character who have in any way promoted the interests of society, the Church, and the Holy See
Decree - In a general sense, an order or law made by a superior authority for the direction of others. In ecclesiastical use it has various meanings. Any papal Bull, Brief, or Motu Proprio is a decree inasmuch as these documents are legislative acts of the Holy Father
Decretals, Papal - In the wide sense the term decretalis signifies a pontifical letter containing a decretum, or pontifical decision. In a narrower sense it denotes a decision on a matter of discipline. In the strictest sense of the word, it means a rescript, an answer of the pope when he has been appealed to or his advice has been sought on a matter of discipline
Dedication - A term which, though sometimes used of persons who are consecrated to God's service, is more properly applied to the 'setting aside' of places for a special and sacred purpose
Deduction - An argument or reasoning process, that kind of mediate inference by which from truths already known we advance to a knowledge of other truths necessarily implied in the former; the mental product or result of that process. Also a method, the deductive method, by which we increase our knowledge through a series of such inferences
Definitions, Theological - An irrevocable decision, by which the supreme teaching authority in the Church decides a question appertaining to faith or morals, and which binds the whole Church
Deism - Historical survey and critique
Deity - This article is confined to the non-Christian notion of the Deity
Delaware - One of the original thirteen of the United States of America
Delilah - The woman who deceived and betrayed Samson
Deluge - A catastrophe fully described in Genesis
Demetrius - The name of two Syrian kings mentioned in the Old Testament and two other persons in the New Testament
Demiurge - The word means literally a public worker, demioergos, demiourgos, and was originally used to designate any craftsman plying his craft or trade for the use of the public. Soon, however, technítes and other words began to be used to designate the common artisan while demiurge was set aside for the Great Artificer or Fabricator, the Architect of the universe
Democracy, Christian - Article representing Christian democracy as the ensemble of Catholic doctrine, organization, and action in the field of popular social questions
Demon - In Scripture and in Catholic theology this word has come to mean much the same as devil and denotes one of the evil spirits or fallen angels
Demoniacs - Article concerned with the demonic possession in the New Testament
Demonology - The science or doctrine concerning demons
Denis, Saint - Bishop of Paris, martyred along with his deacons Rusticus and Eleutherius in about 275
Denmark - History includes politics, religion, literary, and art
Denunciation - Making known the crime of another to one who is his superior
Denys the Carthusian - Sometimes called the last of the Schoolmen, devoted to prayer, avid reader whose favorite author was Pseudo-Dionysius. Author of commentaries, sermons, and theological and philosophical treatises. He died in 1471
Denzinger, Heinrich Joseph Dominicus - Theologian of the modern Catholic German school and author of the 'Enchiridion' universally used, b. 10 Oct., 1819, at Liege; d. 19 June, 1883
Deo Gratias - An old liturgical formula of the Latin Church to give thanks to God for graces received
Deposition - An ecclesiastical vindictive penalty by which a cleric is forever deprived of his office or benefice and of the right of exercising the functions of his orders
De Profundis - 'Out of the depths'. First words of Psalm 129
Derogation - The partial revocation of a law, as opposed to abrogation or the total abolition of a law
Descartes, René - Philosopher and scientist, born at La Haye France, 31 March, 1596; died at Stockholm, Sweden, 11 February 1650
Desecration - The loss of that peculiar quality of sacredness, which inheres in places and things in virtue of the constitutive blessing of the Church
Desert - The word wilderness, which is more frequently used than desert of the region of the Exodus, more nearly approaches the meaning of the Hebrew
Desertion - Brief explanation of the different situations to which this concept applies in canon law
Desiderius - Benedictine monk, peacemaker, abbot of Monte Cassino, elected to the papacy in 1086, d. 1087
De Smet, Pierre-Jean - Missionary among the North American Indians, b. at Termonde (Dendermonde), Belgium, 30 Jan., 1801; d. at St. Louis, Missouri, U.S.A., 23 May, 1873
Desolation, The Abomination of - Spoken of in St. Matthew, xxiv, 15, and St. Mark, xiii, 14
De Soto, Hernando - Explorer and conqueror, born at Villanueva de la Serena, Badajoz, Spain, 1496 or 1500; died on the banks of the Mississippi the latter part of June, 1542
Despair - The voluntary and complete abandonment of all hope of saving one's soul and of having the means required for that end
Determinism - A name employed by writers, especially since J. Stuart Mill, to denote the philosophical theory which holds, in opposition to the doctrine of free will, that all man's volitions are invariably determined by pre-existing circumstances
Detraction - The unjust damaging of another's good name by the revelation of some fault or crime of which that other is really guilty or at any rate is seriously believed to be guilty by the defamer
Detroit - Diocese established 8 March, 1838. Suffragan of Cincinnati
Deusdedit, Pope Saint - Also known as Pope Adeodatus I, d. 618
Deusdedit, Cardinal - Joined the Benedictine Order and became a zealous promoter of ecclesiastical reforms in the latter half of the eleventh century
Deuteronomy - This term occurs in Deuteronomy 17 and Joshua 8, and is the title of one of the five books of the Pentateuch
Devil - The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons. With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, 'the Devil and his angels'
Devil Worship - Fathers and theologians explain the matter as, the fallen angels besides tempting and assailing men in other ways have, by working on their fears or exciting their cupidity, brought them to give worship to themselves under the guise of idols
Devil's Advocate - A title given to an officer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites, established in 1587, by Sixtus V, to deal juridically with processes of beatification and canonization
Devotions, Popular - Brief explanation of the spiritual practices collectively called 'devotions' or 'popular devotions.'
Dialectic - Greek dialektike (techne or methodos), the dialectic art or method, from dialegomai I converse, discuss, dispute; as noun also dialectics; as adjective, dialectical
Dias, Bartolomeu - A famous Portuguese navigator of the fifteenth century, discoverer of the Cape of Good Hope; died at sea, 29 May, 1500
Diaspora - The name given to the countries (outside of Palestine) through which the Jews were dispersed, and secondarily to the Jews living in those countries
Díaz del Castillo, Bernal - Spanish historian, one of the chief chroniclers of the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards, b. at Medina del Campo, Spain, c. 1498; d. after 1568
Didache - A short treatise which was accounted by some of the Fathers as next to Holy Scripture
Didascalia Apostolorum - A treatise which pretends to have been written by the Apostles at the time of the Council of Jerusalem (Acts, xv), but is really a composition of the third century
Dies Irae - Name by which the sequence in requiem Masses is commonly known
Dignitary, Ecclesiastical - A member of a chapter, cathedral or collegiate, possessed not only of a foremost place, but also of a certain jurisdiction
Diocesan Chancery - That branch of administration which handles all written documents used in the official government of a diocese
Diocese - The territory or churches subject to the jurisdiction of a bishop
Diocletian - Roman Emperor and persecutor of the Church, b. of parents who had been slaves, at Dioclea, near Salona, in Dalmatia, A.D. 245; d. at Salona, A.D. 313
Diognetus, Epistle to - An apology for Christianity cited by no ancient or medieval writer, and came from a single manuscript which perished in the siege of Strasburg (1870)
Dionysius, Pope Saint - Elected towards the end of a wave of persecution. Dionysius opposed the errors of the Sabellians and Marcionites, and died in 268
Dionysius Exiguus - According to his friend and fellow-student, Cassiodorus, though by birth a Scythian, he was in character a true Roman and thorough Catholic, most learned in both tongues i.e., Greek and Latin, and an accomplished scripturist
Dionysius of Alexandria - Also called Dionysius the Great. Bishop, d. 264 or 265
Dionysius the Pseudo-Areopagite - Article on the identity of the mysterious Pseudo-Areopagite, his writings, and their influence
Dioscorus - Antipope (d. 530)
Diptych - A sort of notebook, formed by the union of two tablets, placed one upon the other and united by rings or by a hinge
Direction, Spiritual - Personal guidance according to individual needs. Criticizes excesses at both ends of the spectrum: heavyhanded directors, and people who think that since they have the Holy Spirit they have no need of human help
Directories, Catholic - Directorium simply means guide, but in the later Middle Ages it came to be specially applied to guides for the recitation of Office and Mass
Discalced - A term applied to those religious congregations of men and women, the members of which go entirely unshod or wear sandals, with or without other covering for the feet
Discernment of Spirits - In the restricted sense, spirits indicate the various spiritual agents which, by their suggestions and movements, may influence the moral value of our acts
Disciple - This term is commonly applied to one who is learning any art or science from one distinguished by his accomplishments
Disciples of Christ - A sect founded in the United States of America by Alexander Campbell
Discipline, Ecclesiastical - Various meanings discussed
Discipline of the Secret - A theological term used to express the custom which prevailed in the earliest ages of the Church, by which the knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian religion was carefully kept from the heathen and even from those who were undergoing instruction in the Faith
Disparity of Cult - A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the sanctity of the Sacrament of Marriage
Disparity of Worship - A diriment impediment introduced by the Church to safeguard the sanctity of the Sacrament of Marriage
Dispensation - An act whereby in a particular case a lawful superior grants relaxation from an existing law
Dispersion of the Apostles - A feast in commemoration of the missionary work of the Twelve Apostles
Distraction - Distraction (Lat. distrahere, to draw away, hence to distract) is here considered in so far as it is wont to happen in time of prayer and in administering the sacraments
Dives - Latin for rich. The word is not used in the Bible as a proper noun; but in the Middle Ages it came to be employed as the name of the rich man in the parable of the rich man and Lazarus, Luke 16:19-31
Divination - The seeking after knowledge of future or hidden things by inadequate means
Divine Attributes - In order to form a more systematic idea of God, and as far as possible, to unfold the implications of the truth, God is All-Perfect, this infinite Perfection is viewed, successively, under various aspects, each of which is treated as a separate perfection and characteristic inherent to the Divine Substance, or Essence. A certain group of these, of paramount import, is called the Divine Attributes
Divine Nature and Attributes, The - Covered as natural reason and faith
Divine Office - Brief essay on the historical development of the Liturgy of the Hours
Divine Word, Society of the - The first German Catholic missionary society established. It was founded in 1875 during the period of the Kulturkampf at Steyl, near Tegelen, Holland, by a priest, Rev. Arnold Janssen (d. 15 January, 1909), for the propagation of the Catholic religion among pagan nations
Divorce (in Moral Theology) - The subject is treated here under two distinct heads: First, divorce in moral theology; second, divorce in civil jurisprudence
Divorce (in Civil Jurisprudence) - Defined in jurisprudence as 'the dissolution or partial suspension by law of the marriage relation'
Docetæ - Docetism, from the Greek 'dokeo' (to seem, to appear) was the contention that Christ merely seemed to be human and only appeared to be born, to suffer, and to die. Already in New Testament times, the Gospel of John opposes Docetism, and so do Ignatius, Irenaeus, and other Fathers
Doctor - The title of an authorized teacher
Doctors, Surnames of Famous - Lists the principal surnames with the dates of death
Doctors of the Church - Certain ecclesiastical writers have received this title on account of the great advantage the whole Church has derived from their doctrine
Doctrine, Christian - The word katechesis means instruction by word of mouth, especially by questioning and answering. The Apostle insists upon 'doctrine' as one of the most important duties of a bishop
Dogma - Signifies, in the writings of the ancient classical authors, sometimes, an opinion or that which seems true to a person; sometimes, the philosophical doctrines or tenets, and especially the distinctive philosophical doctrines, of a particular school of philosophers, and sometimes, a public decree or ordinance, as dogma poieisthai
Dogmatic Fact - Any fact connected with a dogma and on which the application of the dogma to a particular case depends
Dogmatic Theology - That part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and His works
Dogmatic Theology, History of - Detailed article broken into time periods
Döllinger, Johann Joseph Ignaz von - Historian and theologian (1799-1890)
Dolphin - The use of the dolphin as a Christian symbol is connected with the general ideas underlying the more general use of the fish. The particular idea is that of swiftness and celerity symbolizing the desire with which Christians, who are thus represented as being sharers in the nature of Christ the true Fish, should seek after the knowledge of Christ
Dome - An architectural term often used synonymously with cupola
Domicile - The canon law has no independent and original theory of domicile; both the canon law and all modern civil codes borrowed this theory from the Roman law; the canon law, however, extended and perfected the Roman theory by adding thereto that of quasi-domicile
Dominic, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Order of Preachers, d. 1221
Dominic of the Mother of God - A member of the Passionist Congregation and theologian, b. near Viterbo, Italy, 22 June, 1792; d. near Reading, England, 27 August, 1849
Dominicans - An extensive article about several branches of the Dominicans, including their history
Dominus Vobiscum - An ancient form of devout salutation, incorporated in the liturgy of the Church, where it is employed as a prelude to certain formal prayers
Domitian - Roman emperor and persecutor of the Church, son of Vespasian and younger brother and successor of the Emperor Titus; b. 24 Oct., A.D. 51, and reigned from 81 to 96
Domitilla and Pancratius, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May
Don Bosco - Commonly called Don Bosco or John Bosco. Founder of the Salesians, d. 1888
Donatello Di Betto Bardi - One of the great Tuscan sculptors of the Renaissance, born at Florence, c. 1386; died there, 13 Dec., 1466
Donation of Constantine - By this name is understood, since the end of the Middle Ages, a forged document of Emperor Constantine the Great, by which large privileges and rich possessions were conferred on the pope and the Roman Church
Donatists - The Donatist schism in Africa began in 311 and flourished just one hundred years, until the conference at Carthage in 411, after which its importance waned
Donus, Pope - Son of a Roman called Mauricius; he was consecrated Bishop of Rome 2 Nov., 676, to succeed Adeodatus II, after an interval of four months and seventeen days; d. 11 April, 678
Doorkeeper - A minor order also called "doorkeeper"
Doria, Andrea - Genoese admiral and statesman, b. at Oneglia, Italy, 1468; d. at Genoa, 1560
Douai - The town of Douai, in the department of Nord, France, is on the River Scarpe, some twenty miles south of Lille
Douay Bible - The original Douay Version, which is the foundation on which nearly all English Catholic versions are still based, owed its existence to the religious controversies of the sixteenth century
Doubt - A state in which the mind is suspended between two contradictory propositions and unable to assent to either of them
Dove - In Christian antiquity the dove appears as a symbol and as a Eucharistic vessel
Dower - A provision for support during life accorded by law to a wife surviving her husband
Doxology - The doxology in the form in which we know it has been used since about the seventh century all over Western Christendom, except in one corner
Drachma - A Greek silver coin
Dreams, Interpretation of - Theologians continue to admit the possibility of dreams supernatural in their origin, and consequently the possibility of dream-interpretation depending on supernatural communications
Drexel, Francis Anthony - Banker, b. at Philadelphia, U.S.A., 20 June, 1824; d. there 15 Feb., 1885
Druidism - Probably the best-substantiated derivation of the word is from the root vid, 'to know', and the intensive prefix dru. According to this etymology, the druids would be the 'very wise and learned ones'
Drusilla - Daughter of Herod Agrippa I
Dryden, John - Introductory biography of the poet and dramatist
Dualism - Denotes the religious or theological system which would explain the universe as the outcome of two eternally opposed and coexisting principles
Dublin - Archdiocese; occupies about sixty miles of the middle eastern coast of Ireland, and penetrates inland, about forty-six miles, including all the County of Dublin, nearly all of Wicklow, and parts of Kildare and Wexford, with three suffragans: Kildare and Leighlin, Ferns, and Ossory
Duccio di Buoninsegna - Painter, and founder of the Sienese School, b. about 1255 or 1260, place not known; d. 3 August, 1319
Duchesne, Philippine-Rose - Admiring biographical essay
Duel - This word, as used both in the ecclesiastical and civil criminal codes, generally signifies every contest with deadly weapons which takes place by agreement between two persons on account of some private quarrel
Dulia - A theological term signifying the honour paid to the saints, while latria means worship given to God alone, and hyperdulia the veneration offered to the Blessed Virgin Mary
Duns Scotus, Blessed John - Called 'Doctor Subtilis,' Franciscan, philosopher, d. 1308
Dunstan, Saint - Long biographical essay on this tenth-century Anglo-Saxon archbishop and confessor
Durango - Archdiocese located in north-western Mexico
Dürer, Albrecht - German artist (1471-1528)
Durham Rite - The earliest document giving an account of liturgical services in the Diocese of Durham is the so-called 'Rituale ecclesiae Dunelmensis'
Duty - The definition of the term duty given by lexicographers is: 'something that is due', 'obligatory service'; 'something that one is bound to perform or to avoid'
Dymphna, Saint - Virgin and martyr, venerated since at least the thirteenth century

E

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Easter - Includes information on the feast and customs
Easter Controversy - The dispute regarding the proper time of observing Easter
Eastern Churches - Eastern Churches depended originally on the Eastern Empire at Constantinople
Eastern Schism - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East
Ebionites - Two varieties: the earlier group called Ebionites denied the divinity of Christ; the later Ebionites were a Gnostic sect who believed that matter was eternal and was God's body
Ecclesiastes - The name given to the book of Holy Scripture which usually follows the Proverbs; the Hebrew Qoheleth probably has the same meaning
Ecclesiastical Addresses - Rules as to what is fitting and customary in the matter of ecclesiastical correspondence
Ecclesiastical Architecture - All ecclesiastical architecture may be said to have been evolved from two distinct germ-cells, the oblong and the circular chamber
Ecclesiastical Art - Article explores the origin, history, and types
Ecclesiastical Buildings - This term comprehends all constructions erected for the celebration of liturgical acts, whatever be the name given to them, church, chapel, oratory, and basilica
Ecclesiastical Forum - Ecclesiastical jurisdiction is distinguished into that of the internal and external forum
Ecclesiasticus - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament
Eck, Johann - Theologian and principal adversary of Luther. Detailed profile by J.P. Kirsch
Eckhart, Meister - Biographical article on the Dominican theologian and mystic. Includes bibliography
Eclecticism - A philosophical term meaning either a tendency of mind in a thinker to conciliate the different views or positions taken in regard to problems, or a system in philosophy which seeks the solution of its fundamental problems by selecting and uniting what it regards as true in the various philosophical schools
Economics - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants
Ecstasy - Offers details of false views
Ecumenical Councils - Article looking at the definition, place in church governance and short historical sketches of each council until Vatican I
Ecumenism - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it
Eden, Garden of - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden
Edessa - A titular archiepiscopal see in that part of Mesopotamia formerly known as Osrhoene
Edinburgh - Derives its name from the time (about A.D. 620) when the fortress of Edwin's burgh was raised on a lofty spur of the Pentland Hills, overlooking the Firth of Forth, and established the Anglian dominion in the northern part of the Northumbrian Kingdom
Editions of the Bible - Includes Hebrew and Greek editions
Edmund Campion, Saint - English Jesuit, martyr, d. 1581. Biographical article
Edmund the Martyr, Saint - Short biography of the King of East Anglia, who died in 870
Education - In the broadest sense, education includes all those experiences by which intelligence is developed, knowledge acquired, and character formed. In a narrower sense, it is the work done by certain agencies and institutions, the home and the school, for the express purpose of training immature minds
Education of the Blind - Includes statistics and history
Education of the Deaf - History, aids, and alphabets are discussed
Edward III - Detailed biographical article on the King of England
Edward the Confessor, Saint - Short biography of the King of England, who died in 1066
Edward the Martyr, Saint - King of England, assassinated at the age of 16 or 17 at the behest of his stepmother. St. Edward was murdered in 979
Eginhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt
Egoism - Synopsis of this ethical system, and short refutation
Egypt - Provides information on history, religion, and literature
Einhard - Historian, born c. 770 in the district watered by the River Main in the eastern part of the Frankish Empire; d. 14 March, 840, at Seligenstadt
El Cid - Popular hero of the chivalrous age of Spain, born at Burgos c. 1040; died at Valencia, 1099. He was given the title of seid or cid (lord, chief) by the Moors and that of campeador (champion) by his admiring countrymen
Elect - Denotes in general one chosen or taken by preference from among two or more; as a theological term it is equivalent to 'chosen as the object of mercy or Divine favour, as set apart for eternal life'
Election - In its broadest sense election means a choice among many persons, things, or sides to be taken. In the stricter juridical sense it means the choice of one person among many for a definite charge or function
Election, Papal - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . .
Eleutherius, Pope Saint - Native of Nicopolis, served as deacon in the Roman Church, d. about 189
Elevation, The - The Elevation of the Mass is a rite of comparatively recent introduction
El Greco - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614
Eli - Discusses the Old Testament priest, and the New Testament father of Joseph
Elias - Old Testament prophet
Eligius, Saint - Or Eloi. Bishop of Noyon-Tournai, founded several monasteries, d. 660
Elijah - Old Testament prophet
Eliseus - A Prophet of Israel
Elisha - A Prophet of Israel
Elizabeth - The wife of Zachary, mother of St. John the Baptist, and relative of the Blessed Virgin Mary. Some believe that it was Elizabeth who proclaimed the Magnificat
Elizabeth Ann Seton, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States
Elizabeth of Hungary, Saint - Also called St. Elizabeth of Thuringia. Biographical article on the princess, widow, Third Order Franciscan, who died in 1231
Elizabeth of Portugal, Saint - Queen, also known as St. Isabel, d. 1336
Elohim - The common name for God
Elvira, Council of - Held early in the fourth century at Elliberis, or Illiberis, in Spain, a city now in ruins not far from Granada
Ember Days - The days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence
Embolism - An insertion, addition, interpretation. The word has two specific uses in the language of the Church; in the prayer and in the calendar
Embroidery - In Christian worship embroidery was used from early times to ornament vestments
Emiliani, Saint Jerome - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537
Emmanuel - Signifies 'God with us' (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel'
Emmaus - A titular see in Palaestina Prima, suffragan of Caesarea
Emmerich, Anne Catherine - An Augustinian nun, stigmatic, and ecstatic, born 8 September, 1774, at Flamsche, near Coesfeld, in the Diocese of Munster, Westphalia, Germany; died at Dulmen, 9 February, 1824
Empiricism - Primarily, and in its psychological application, the term signifies the theory that the phenomena of consciousness are simply the product of sensuous experience, i.e. of sensations variously associated and arranged
Encyclical - According to its etymology, an encyclical is nothing more than a circular letter. In modern times, usage has confined the term almost exclusively to certain papal documents which differ in their technical form from the ordinary style of either Bulls or Briefs, and which in their superscription are explicitly addressed to the patriarchs, primates, archbishops, and bishops of the Universal Church in communion with the Apostolic See
Energy, The Law of Conservation of - Includes the history and philosophy
England (Before 1066) - History of the occupation, conversion, and development
England (1066-1558) - This term England is here restricted to one constituent, the largest and most populous, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
England (After 1558) - Article on the relation of the post-Reformation Catholic church to the English state
English Confessors and Martyrs (1534-1729) - Since this article was published, some of the causes for canonization have been successful, and others have progressed from 'venerable' to 'blessed.'
English Hierarchy, Reorganization of the - The restoration of the English hierarchy in 1850 was a milestone for English Catholics after the Penal Times
English Literature - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences
English Revolution of 1688 - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole
Enoch - The name of the son of Cain, of a nephew of Abraham, of the first-born of Ruben, and of the son of Jared and the father of Mathusala
Enoch, Book of - Introductory article
Envy - Taken to be synonymous with jealousy
Epact - The surplus days of the solar over the lunar year; hence, more freely, the number of days in the age of the moon on 1 January of any given year. The whole system of epacts is based on the Metonic Lunar Cycle, and serves to indicate the days of the year on which the new moons occur
Eparchy - Originally the name of one of the divisions of the Roman Empire
Ephesians, Epistle to the - The letter which, in the manuscripts containing the Epistles of St. Paul, bears the title 'To the Ephesians' comprises two parts distinctly separated by a doxology (Eph., iii, 20 sq.)
Ephesus - A titular archiespiscopal see in Asia Minor, said to have been founded in the eleventh century B.C. by Androcles, son of the Athenian King Codrus, with the aid of Ionian colonists
Ephesus, Council of - The third ecumenical council, held in 431
Ephesus, Robber Council of - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535
Ephesus, Seven Sleepers of - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed
Ephod - a kind of garment, which differed according to its use by the high-priest, by other persons present at religious services, or as the object of idolatrous worship
Ephraem, Saint - Long article on the life and works of the hermit, deacon, poet
Epicureanism - In its popular sense, the word stands for a refined and calculating selfishness, seeking not power or fame, but the pleasures of sense, particularly of the palate, and those in company rather than solitude
Epiklesis - The name of a prayer that occurs in all Eastern liturgies (and originally in Western liturgies also) after the words of Institution, in which the celebrant prays that God may send down His Holy Spirit to change this bread and wine into the Body and Blood of His Son
Epiphanius of Salamis - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop
Epiphany - The feast was called among the Syrians denho (up-going), a name to be connected with the notion of rising light expressed in Luke. I, 78
Episcopalians - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism
Epistemology - That branch of philosophy which is concerned with the value of human knowledge
Epistle (in Scripture) - The Old Testament exhibits two periods in its idea of an epistle: first, it presents the epistle under the general concept of a book or a writing; secondly, it regards the epistle as a distinct literary form. The New Testament presents a very highly developed form of an epistle
Erasmus, Desiderius - Article by Joseph Sauer. An extensive overview of the life, works and impact of this scholar
Erastus and Erastianism - The name 'Erastianism' is often used in a somewhat loose sense as denoting an undue subservience of the Church to the State
Erin, The Twelve Apostles of - Twelve holy Irishmen of the sixth century who went to study at the School of Clonard in Meath
Eriugena, John Scotus - Article by William Turner recounts this scholar's life and influence, and evaluates his teachings
Error - Reduplicatively regarded, is in one way or another the product of ignorance. But besides the lack of information which it implies, it adds the positive element of a mental judgment, by which something false is held to be true, or something true avouched to be false
Esau - The eldest son of Isaac and Rebecca, the twin-brother of Jacob
Esc_blankhatology - A survey of the subject in various pre-Christian religions and cultures, an examination of the development of eschatology in the Old Testament, brief overview of Christian teaching
Escorial, The - A building in Spain situated on the south-eastern slope of the Sierra Guadarrama about twenty-seven miles north-west of Madrid. Its proper title is El Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo del Escorial, Escorial being the name of a small town in the vicinity
Esdras - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name
Eskimo - A littoral race occupying the entire Arctic coast and outlying islands of America from below Cook Inlet in Alaska to the mouth of the St. Lawrence
ESP - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Essence and Existence - Essence, described as that whereby a thing is what it is. Existence is that whereby the essence is an actuality in the line of being
Essenes - One of three leading Jewish sects mentioned by Josephus as flourishing in the second century B.C., the others being the Pharisees and the Sadducees
Establishment, The - The union of Church and State setting up a definite and distinctive relation between the two is frequently expressed in English by the use of the word 'establishment'
Esther - Queen of Persia and wife of Assuerus, who is identified with Xerxes (485-465 B.C.)
Eternity - Eternity is defined by Boetius (De Consol. Phil., V, vi) as 'possession, without succession and perfect, of interminable life'
Ethelbert, Saint - King of Kent, a worshipper of Odin well into his adulthood, converted to Christianity, d. 616. Biography
Etheldreda, Saint - Queen of Northumbria, twice married for reasons of state, d. 679. Biography
Ethics - Many writers regard ethics as any scientific treatment of the moral order and divide it into theological, or Christian, ethics (moral theology) and philosophical ethics (moral philosophy)
Ethiopia - Includes geography, history, and religion
Eucharist, Introduction to the - The name given to the Blessed Sacrament of the Altar its twofold aspect of sacrament and Sacrifice of Mass, and in which Jesus Christ is truly present under the bread and wine
Eucharist, as a Sacrament - Since Christ is present under the appearances of bread and wine in a sacramental way, the Blessed Eucharist is unquestionably a sacrament of the Church
Eucharist, as a Sacrifice - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Eucharist, Early Symbols of the - The earliest and always the favourite symbol of the Eucharist in the monuments was that inspired by the miracle of the multiplication of the loaves and fishes; the banquet of the seven Disciples appears only in one (second-century) catacomb scene; the miracle of Cana in two, one of which is of the early third, the other of the fourth, century
Eucharist, Real Presence of Christ in - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy
Eucharistic Prayer - Article divided into four sections: (I) Name and place of the Canon; (II) History of the Canon; (III) The text and rubrics of the Canon; (IV) Mystical interpretations
Eudes, Blessed Jean - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680
Eugene I, Saint, Pope - Made bishop of Rome after Pope St. Martin I had been in exile for 14 months. Eugene died in 657
Eugene II, Pope - Elected 6 June, 824; died 27 Aug., 827
Eugene III, Pope - Cistercian monk and abbot chosen by unanimous vote of the College of Cardinals to succeed Lucius II. Blessed Eugene died in 1151
Eugene IV, Pope - Gabriello Condulmaro, or Condulmerio, b. at Venice, 1388; elected 4 March, 1431; d. at Rome, 23 Feb., 1447
Eugenics - Eugenics literally means 'good breeding'. It is defined as the study of agencies under social control that may improve or impair the racial qualities of future generations either physically or mentally
Eulalia of Barcelona, Saint - Martyred 12 February, 304, patron saint of sailors
Eunomianism - A phase of extreme Arianism prevalent amongst a section of Eastern churchmen from about 350 until 381; as a sect it is not heard of after the middle of the fifth century
Europe - The conception of Europe as a distinct division of the earth, separate from Asia and Africa, had its origin in ancient times
Eusebius, Saint - Bishop of Vercelli, exiled for defending St. Athanasius, anti-Arian, martyr, d. 371
Eusebius, Saint, Pope - Reigned for only four months, in 309 or 310, was deported, died in exile, is counted as a martyr
Eusebius, Chronicle of - Consists of two parts: the first was probably called by Eusebius the 'Chronograph' or 'Chronographies'; the second he terms the 'Canon', or 'Canons', and also the 'Chronological Canons'
Eusebius of Cæsarea - Biographical article on the 'Father of Church History.'
Eusebius of Nicomedia - Bishop, place and date of birth unknown; d. 341. He was a pupil at Antioch of Lucian the Martyr, in whose famous school he learned his Arian doctrines
Eustachius, Bartolomeo - A distinguished anatomist of the Renaissance period
Euthanasia - From Greek eu, well, and thanatos, death, easy, painless death
Eutyches - An heresiarch of the fifth century
Eutychianism - Eutychianism and Monophysitism are usually identified as a single heresy. But as some Monophysites condemned Eutyches, the name Eutychians is given by some writers only to those in Armenia
Eutychianus, Saint, Pope - The successor of Pope Felix I. Eutychianus died in 283
Evangelical Church - Almost from the beginning the new Evangelical Church was split, first into two communions, the Lutheran and the Reformed, then into a multitude of sects
Evangelical Counsels - The difference between a precept and a counsel lies in this, that the precept is a matter of necessity while the counsel is left to the free choice of the person to whom it is proposed
Evangelist - In the New Testament this word, in its substantive form, occurs only three times: Acts, xxi, 8; Eph., iv, 11; II Tim., iv, 5. It seems to indicate not so much an order in the early ecclesiastical hierarchy as a function
Evaristus, Pope Saint - Sometimes called Aristus. Martyr, died about 107
Eve - First woman; wife of Adam
Eve of a Feast - In the first ages, during the night before every feast, a vigil was kept. In the evening the faithful assembled in the place or church where the feast was to be celebrated and prepared themselves by prayers, readings from Holy Writ (now the Offices of Vespers and Matins), and sometimes also by hearing a sermon
Evil - In a large sense, described as the sum of the opposition, which experience shows to exist in the universe, to the desires and needs of individuals; whence arises, among humans beings at least, the sufferings in which life abounds
Evolution, Catholics and - Discussed under the headings: (1) Scientific Hypothesis vs. Philosophical Speculation; (2) Theistic vs. Atheistic Theories of Evolution; (3) The Theory of Evolution vs. Darwinism; and (4) Human Evolution vs. Plant and Animal Evolution
Evolution, History and Scientific Foundation of - History, definition, and various arguments
Ex Cathedra - Literally 'from the chair', a theological term which signifies authoritative teaching and is more particularly applied to the definitions given by the Roman pontiff
Examination of Conscience - By this term is understood a review of one's past thoughts, words and actions for the purpose of ascertaining their conformity with, or difformity from, the moral law
Exarch - A title used in various senses both civilly and ecclesiastically
Excardination and Incardination - In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another
Excommunication - Exclusion from the communion, the principal and severest censure, is a medicinal, spiritual penalty that deprives the guilty Christian of all participation in the common blessings of ecclesiastical society
Exegesis, Biblical - The branch of theology which investigates and expresses the true sense of Sacred Scripture
Exodus (See Pentateuch) - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament.
Exorcism - Exorcism is (1) the act of driving out, or warding off, demons, or evil spirits, from persons, places, or things, which are believed to be possessed or infested by them, or are liable to become victims or instruments of their malice; (2) the means employed for this purpose, especially the solemn and authoritative adjuration of the demon, in the name of God, or any of the higher power in which he is subject
Exorcist - (1) In general, any one who exorcises or professes to exorcise demons (cf. Acts 19:13); (2) in particular, one ordained by a bishop for this office, ordination to which is the second of the four minor orders of the Western Church
Exposition of the Blessed Sacrament - A manner of honouring the Holy Eucharist, by exposing it, with proper solemnity, to the view of the faithful in order that they may pay their devotions before it
Extension - Philosophical term. From Lat. ex-tendere, to spread out
Extra-Sensory Perception (ESP) - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Extreme Unction - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Exultet - The hymn in praise of the paschal candle sung by the deacon, in the liturgy of Holy Saturday
Eyck, Hubert and Jan van - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe
Eymard, Venerable Pierre-Julien - Biographical article on the French priest and founder
Ezekiel - Son of Buzi, and was one of the priests who, in the year 598 B.C., had been deported together with Joachim as prisoners from Jerusalem
Ezra - Or Ezra. Article on the man and the books which bear his name

F

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for F or use the search box at the top of this page.

Faber, Frederick William - Oratorian and devotional writer (1814-1863)
Fabian, Pope Saint - Biography of this pope who was martyred in 250
Fabiola, Saint - Divorced, remarried, widowed, penitent, renowned for her generosity. She died in 399 or 400
Façade - The face or front of any building. In ecclesiastical architecture the term is generally used to designate the west front; sometimes the transept fronts
Fact, Dogmatic - Any fact connected with a dogma and on which the application of the dogma to a particular case depends
Faculties, Canonical - In law, a faculty is the authority, privilege, or permission, to perform an act or function
Faculties of the Soul - Article covers the meaning and classification
Faith - In the Old Testament, the Hebrew word means essentially steadfastness. As signifying man's attitude towards God it means trustfulness or fiducia
Faith, Hope, and Charity (Saints) - Two groups of martyrs. The first were martyred along with their mother Sophia during the reign of Hadrian, and buried on the Aurelian Way. The second band, also along with someone named Sophia, were martyred at a later date, and buried along the Appian Way
Faith, The Rule of - The word rule (Lat. regula, Gr. kanon) means a standard by which something can be tested, and the rule of faith means something extrinsic to our faith, and serving as its norm or measure
Faithful, The - Those who have bound themselves to a religious association, whose doctrine they accept, and into whose rites they have been initiated. Among Christians the term is applied to those who have been fully initiated by baptism and, regularly speaking, by confirmation
Faldstool - A movable folding chair used in pontifical functions by the bishop outside of his cathedral, or within it if he is not at his throne or cathedra
Fallopio, Gabriello - Anatomist (1523-1562)
Falsity - A perversion of truth originating in the deceitfulness of one party, and culminating in the damage of another party
Family - In the classical Roman period the familia rarely included the parents or the children. Its English derivative was frequently used in former times to describe all the persons of the domestic circle, parents, children, and servants. Present usage, however, excludes servants
Fast - Abstinence from food or drink
Fatalism - The view which holds that all events in the history of the world, and, in particular, the actions and incidents which make up the story of each individual life, are determined by fate
Fate - Lat. fatum, from fari, to tell or predict
Fathers of the Church - The word Father is used in the New Testament to mean a teacher of spiritual things, by whose means the soul of man is born again into the likeness of Christ:
Fathers, The Apostolic - Christian writers of the first and second centuries who are known, or are considered, to have had personal relations with some of the Apostles, or to have been so influenced by them that their writings may be held as echoes of genuine Apostolic teaching
Fear (in Canon Law) - A mental disturbance caused by the perception of instant or future danger
Fear (from a Moral Standpoint) - Viewed from the moral standpoint, that is, in so far as it is a factor to be reckoned with in pronouncing upon the freedom of human acts, as well as offering an adequate excuse for failing to comply with positive law, particularly if the law be of human origin
Feast of Fools - A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and particularly in France, during the later middle ages took place every year on or about the feast of the Circumcision (1 Jan.)
Feasts, Ecclesiastical - Feast Days, or Holy Days, are days which are celebrated in commemoration of the sacred mysteries and events recorded in the history of our redemption, in memory of the Virgin Mother of Christ, or of His apostles, martyrs, and saints, by special services and rest from work
Febronianism - The politico-ecclesiastical system outlined by Johann Nikolaus von Hontheim, Auxiliary Bishop of Trier, under the pseudonym Justinus Febronius
Felicitas, Saint - Roman martyr. Article explains how she and the seven martyrs who are called her sons have come to have different feast days
Felicitas and Perpetua, Saints - Martyred at Carthage in 203
Felix I, Pope Saint - The successor of Pope St. Dionysius, Felix died in 274. He is sometimes confused with a Roman martyr of the same name
Felix II - Pope (more properly Antipope), 355-358; d. 22 Nov., 365
Felix III (II), Pope Saint - Felix II was an antipope, irregularly imposed by the Arians while Pope Liberius was still alive, so St. Felix III is sometimes called Felix II. Pope St. Felix III was much involved in battling heresy, and died in 492
Felix IV (III), Pope Saint - Since Felix II was an antipope imposed by the Arians while Pope Liberius was still alive, St. Felix IV is sometimes called Felix III. Pope St. Felix IV died in 530
Felix V - Regnal name of Amadeus of Savoy, Antipope (1440-1449) (1383-1451)
Felix of Nola, Saint - Third-century confessor. Possibly the same as St. Felix of Nola, bishop and martyr
Fénelon, François de Salignac de la Mother - French bishop and author, b. in the Chateau de Fenelon in Perigord (Dordogne), 6 August, 1651; d. at Cambrai, 7 January, 1715
Ferdinand III, Saint - King of Leon and Castile, Third Order Franciscan, d. 1252
Feria - A day on which the people, especially the slaves, were not obliged to work, and on which there were no court sessions
Ferrer, Saint Vincent - Biography of this Spanish-born Dominican missionary, who died in 1419
Fetishism - The word fetish is derived through the Portuguese feitico from the Latin factitius (facere, to do, or to make), signifying made by art, artificial (cf. Old English fetys in Chaucer)
Feudalism - The source of feudalism rises from an intermingling of barbarian usage and Roman law
Fiacre, Saint - Biography of this Irish priest and hermit, patron saint of gardeners, d. 670
Ficino, Marsilio - Entry on this Renaissance Platonist, by M. Schumacher. Details his life and explores his relation to the classical thinkers
Fideism - A philosophical term meaning a system of philosophy or an attitude of mind, which, denying the power of unaided human reason to reach certitude, affirms that the fundamental act of human knowledge consists in an act of faith, and the supreme criterion of certitude is authority
Fidelis of Sigmaringen, Saint - Former lawyer who joined the Capuchins, and was sent as a missionary to the Calvinists. Martyred in 1622
Filioque - It expresses the Procession of the Holy Ghost from both Father and Son as one Principle; and, it was the occasion of the Greek schism
Final Perseverance - The preservation of the state of grace till the end of life
Fioretti di San Francesco d'Assisi - Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi, the name given to a classic collection of popular legends about the life of St. Francis of Assisi and his early companions as they appeared to the Italian people at the beginning of the fourteenth century
Fire, Liturgical Use of - One of the most expressive and most ancient of liturgical symbols
Firmament - The notion that the sky was a vast solid dome seems to have been common among the ancient peoples
First-Born - The word, though casually taken in Holy Writ in a metaphorical sense, is most generally used by the sacred writers to designate the first male child in a family
First-Fruits - First-fruit offerings are designated in the Law by a threefold name: Bikkurim, Reshith, and Terumoth
Fish, Symbolism of the - The symbol itself may have been suggested by the miraculous multification of the loaves and fishes or the repast of the seven Disciples, after the Resurrection, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, but its popularity among Christians was due principally, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and His claim to the worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, i.e. Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour
Fisherman, The Ring of the - Ring worn by the popes, with a representation of St. Peter in a boat on it
Fitzherbert, Maria Anne - Wife of King George IV; b. 26 July, 1756 (place uncertain); d. at Brighton, England, 29 March, 1837
Flabellum - A fan made of leather, silk, parchment, or feathers intended to keep away insects from the Sacred Species and from the priest
Flagellants - A fanatical and heretical sect that flourished in the thirteenth and succeeding centuries
Flagellation - Includes history and its use in scripture
Flanders - Designated in the eighth century a small territory around Bruges; it became later the name of the country bounded by the North Sea, the Scheldt, and the Canche
Flathead Indians - A name used in both Americas, without special ethnologic significance, to designate tribes practising the custom of compressing the skull in infancy by artificial means
Flavia Domitilla - A Christian Roman matron of the imperial family who lived towards the close of the first century
Flood of Noah - A catastrophe fully described in the Book of Genesis
Florence - Located in the province of Tuscany (Central Italy)
Florence, Council of - The Seventeenth Ecumenical Council was the continuation of the Council of Ferrara
Florida - The Peninsular or Everglade State, the most southern in the American Union and second largest east of the Mississippi
Fontevrault, Order and Abbey of - The monastery of Fontevrault was founded by Blessed Robert d'Arbrissel about the end of 1100
Fonts, Holy Water - Vessels intended for the use of holy water
Fools, Feast of - A celebration marked by much license and buffoonery, which in many parts of Europe, and particularly in France, during the later middle ages took place every year on or about the feast of the Circumcision (1 Jan.)
Forgery, Forger - The deliberate untruthfulness of an assertion, or in the deceitful presentation of an object, and is based on an intention to deceive and to injure while using the externals of honesty
Form - The original meaning of the term form, both in Greek and Latin, was and is that in common use - eidos, being translated, that which is seen, shape, etc., with secondary meanings derived from this, as form, sort, particular, kind, nature
Formosus, Pope - Reigned 891-896
Fortitude - One of the gifts from the Holy Ghost is a supernatural virtue
Fortunatus - Lengthy biographical article on the talented sixth-century poet and hymn-writer
Forty Hours' Devotion - Somewhat dated with regard to the liturgical details, but otherwise an accurate depiction. A eucharistic devotion
Foucault, Jean-Bertrand-Léon - A physicist and mechanician, b. at Paris, 19 Sept., 1819; d. there 11 Feb., 1868
Foundling Asylums - Under this title are comprised all institutions which take charge of infants whose parents or guardians are unable or unwilling to care for them
Four Masters, Annals of the - The most extensive of all the compilations of the ancient annals of Ireland
Foxe's Book of Martyrs - Protestant martyrology, from Wyclif to Cranmer, illustrated with woodcuts. The author was a controversialist sympathetic to John Knox
Fra Angelico - Biography of this Dominican, a famous painter, who died in 1455
France - Geography, statistics, and history
Frances of Rome, Saint - Wife and mother, Benedictine oblate, mystic, d. 1440
Francis I - King of France; b. at Cognac, 12 September, 1494; d. at Rambouillet, 31 March, 1547
Francis, Rule of Saint - As known, St. Francis founded three orders and gave each of them a special rule
Francis Borgia, Saint - Long essay on the dramatic life of the Duke of Gandia turned Jesuit
Francis de Sales, Saint - Biographical article on the Bishop of Geneva, and Doctor of the Church, who died in 1622
Francis of Assisi, Saint - Long article on St. Francis, founder, mystic, perhaps the most beloved Catholic saint of all
Francis of Paula, Saint - Founder of the Order of Minims, d. 1507
Francis Xavier, Saint - Biographical article on one of the first Jesuits, and missionary to Asia, who died in 1552
Franciscan Crown - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Franciscan Order - An article on the history of the Franciscan order and its role within the Catholic Church
Franks, The - A confederation formed in Western Germany of a certain number of ancient barbarian tribes who occupied the right shore of the Rhine from Mainz to the sea. Their name is first mentioned by Roman historians in connection with a battle fought against this people about the year 241
Fraternal Correction - The admonishing of one's neighbor by a private individual with the purpose of reforming him or, if possible, preventing his sinful indulgence
Fraticelli - A name given to various heretical sects which appeared in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, principally in Italy
Fraud - In the common acceptation of the word, an act or course of deception deliberately practised with the view of gaining a wrong and unfair advantage
Frederick I (Barbarossa) - German King and Roman Emperor (1123-1190)
Frederick II - German King and Roman Emperor, son of Henry VI and Constance of Sicily; born 26 Dec., 1194; died at Fiorentina, in Apulia, 13 Dec., 1250
Free Will - The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time Freemasonry - An overview of Freemasonry and
description of its condemnation by the Catholic Church
Free-Thinkers - Those who, abandoning the religious truths and moral dictates of the Christian Revelation, and accepting no dogmatic teaching on the ground of authority, base their beliefs on the unfettered findings of reason alone
French Academy, The - Founded by Cardinal de Richelieu in 1635
French Catholics in the United States - History and statistics of French Canadian immigration to the United States
French Concordat of 1801, The - This name is given to the convention of the 26th Messidor, year IX (July 16, 1802), whereby Pope Pius VII and Bonaparte, First Consul, re-established the Catholic Church in France
French Literature - Origin, foundations, and types
French Revolution - A view of its effect on the Church
Frequent Communion - Discusses the history and practice
Friar - A member of one of the mendicant orders
Friars Minor, Order of - History, traditions, and saints of the order
Friends, Society of - Quakers, an Anglo-American religious sect
Frontal, Altar - An appendage which covers the entire front of the altar, from the lower part of the table to the predella, and from the gospel corner to that of the epistle side
Fulda - This diocese of the German Empire takes its name from the ancient Benedictine abbey of Fulda
Funeral Pall - A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased person

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Gabbatha - The Aramaic appellation of a place in Jerusalem, designated also under the Greek name of Lithostrotos
Gabriel the Archangel, Saint - One of the three archangels mentioned in the Bible
Gad - A proper name which designates in the Bible, (I), a patriarch; (II), a tribe of Israel; (III), a prophet; (IV), a pagan deity
Gaetano, Saint - Also known as St. Gaetano. Biography of the founder of the Theatines
Galatians, Epistle to the - Background on Galatia, purpose and date, a summary of its contents, its importance and a discussion of some difficulties
Galerius, Valerius Maximianus - Galerius, a native of Illyria, was made Caesar 1 March, 293, by Diocletian, whose daughter Valeria he married and who in turn adopted her husband
Galilee - The native land of Jesus Christ, where He began His ministry and performed many of His works, and whence He drew His Apostles
Galilei, Galileo - Although in the popular mind Galileo is remembered chiefly as an astronomer, it was not in this character that he made really substantial contributions to human knowledge, but rather in the field of mechanics, and especially of dynamics, which science may be said to owe its existence to him
Gall, Abbey of Saint - In Switzerland, Canton St. Gall, 30 miles southeast of Constance; for many centuries one of the chief Benedictine abbeys in Europe; founded about 613, and named after Gallus, an Irishman, the disciple and companion of St. Columbanus in his exile from Luxeuil
Gallicanism - This term is used to designate a certain group of religious opinions for some time peculiar to the Church of France, or Gallican Church, and the theological schools of that country
Gallican Rite, The - The rite which prevailed in Gaul until about the middle or end of the eighth century
Gallitzin, Demetrius Augustine - Prince, priest, and missionary (1770-1840)
Galvani, Luigi - Physician, b. at Bologna, Italy, 9 September, 1737; d. there, 4 December, 1798
Gama, Vasco da - The discover of the sea route to East Indies; born at Sines, Province of Alemtejo, Portugal, about 1469; died at Cochin, India, 24 December, 1524
Gamaliel - Famous Pharisee and Rabbi
Gambling - The staking of money or other thing of value on the issue of a game of chance
García Moreno, Gabriel - Ecuadorean patriot and statesman; b. at Guayaquil, 24 December, 1821; assassinated at Quito, 6 August, 1875
Garland - A wreath of flowers or evergreens formerly used in connection with baptismal, nuptial, and funeral rites, as well as in solemn processions
Gaudete Sunday - The third Sunday of Advent, so called from the first word of the Introit at Mass (Gaudete, i.e. Rejoice)
Gaul, Christian - The Church of Gaul first appeared in history in connexion with the persecution at Lyons under Marcus Aurelius (177)
Gedeon - One of the Greater Judges of Israel. He belonged to the tribe of Manasses, and to the family of Abiezer
Gelasius I, Pope Saint - An assessment of his pontificate. He died in 496
Gelasius II, Pope - Reigned 1118-1119
Genealogy (in the Bible) - The word genealogy occurs only twice in the New Testament. In these passages commentators explain the word as referring to the Gentile theogonies, or to the Essene generation of angels, or to the emanation of spirits and aeons as conceived by the Gnostics, or to the genealogies of Jesus Christ, or finally to the genealogies of the Old Testament construed into a source of an occult doctrine
Genealogy of Christ - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke
General Judgment - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine
Generation - Definitions include: a definite period of time, with a special reference to the average length of man's life; an indefinite period of time, of time past; the men who lived in the same period of time who were contemporaries; a race or class of men; and a dwelling place or habitation
Genesius - Five people with this name including: Genesius of Rome; Genesius of Arles; Genesius, Bishop of Clermont; Genesius Count of Clermont; and Genesius of Lyons
Genevieve, Saint - Patroness of Paris, d. 512
Genoa - Archdiocese in Liguria, Northern Italy
Gentiles - In the English versions of both Testaments it collectively designates the nations distinct from the Jewish people
Genuflexion - To genuflect, to bend the knee
Geography, Biblical - With the exception of the didactic literature, there is no book in the Bible which, to a greater or less extent, does not contain mention of, or allusions to, the geography and topography of the Holy Land
Geography and the Church - Explains the nature of this science and the course of its evolution
George, Saint - Long, scholarly article on St. George, martyr, patron saint of England
George, Orders of Saint - Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood
Georgetown University - Founded immediately after the Revolutionary War, by the incorporated Catholic Clergy of Maryland, who selected from their Body Trustees, and invested them with full power to choose a President and appoint Professors. Since the year 1805, it has been under the direction of Society of Jesus'
Georgia - The largest of the original thirteen United States; bounded on the north by Tennessee and North Carolina, on the east by the Savannah River and the Atlantic Ocean, on the south by Florida, and on the west by Florida and Alabama
Gerald, Saint - English monk, Bishop of Mayo, d. 731. Brief biography
Gerard Majella, Saint - Tailor, Redemptorist, called 'Father of the Poor,' d. 1755
Germain, Saint, Bishop of Auxerre - A married lawyer, rather worldly, became Bishop of Auxerre, d. 448 or 450. Biography
Germaine Cousin, Saint - Sickly, pious shepherdess, cruelly treated by her stepmother. St. Germaine died in 1601, at the age of 22
Germans in the United States - Includes all German-speaking people, whether originally from Germany proper, Austria, Switzerland, or Luxemburg
Germany - History divided by time periods, beginning with before 1556
German Literature - History starting with the pre-Christian period to 800 A.D
Gertrude of Nivelles, Saint - Benedictine abbess of a double monastery, d. 659
Gertrude the Great, Saint - Benedictine, mystic, author, d. 1301 or 1302
Gervasius and Protasius, Saints - Martyred in Milan, probably in the second century
Gethsemane - The place in which Jesus Christ suffered the Agony and was taken prisoner by the Jews
Ghibellines and Guelphs - Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the greater part of the later Middle Ages
Ghirlandajo - Florentine painter; b. 1449; d. 11 Jan., 1494
Ghost Dance - The principal ceremonial rite of an Indian religion which originated about 1887 with Wovoka, alias jack Wilson, an Indian of the Piute tribe in Nevada
Gideon - One of the Greater Judges of Israel. He belonged to the tribe of Manasses, and to the family of Abiezer
Gift of Miracles - The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost
Gift, Supernatural - Something conferred on nature that is above all the powers (vires) of created nature
Giles, Saint - Also known as Aegidius. Hermit and then abbot in late seventh-century Gaul
Giotto di Bondone - A Florentine painter, and founder of the Italian school of painting, b. most probably, in the village of Vespignano near Florence; d. at Milan, 8 Jan., 1337
Giuliani, Veronica - Short biographical article on this Capuchin, who died in 1727
Giulio Romano - A famous architect and painter, the best-known of Raphael's pupils, and the unique representative of the so-called 'Roman School'; b. at Rome in 1492; d. at Mantua in 1546
Glastonbury Abbey - Benedictine monastery, Somersetshire, England, pre-eminently the centre of early Christian tradition in England
Glendalough, School of - Founded by St. Kevin
Gloria in Excelsis Deo - The great doxology (hymnus angelicus) in the Mass is a version of a very old Greek form'. It begins with the words sung by the angels at Christ's birth (Luke 2:14). To this verse others were added very early, forming a doxology
Glory - In the English version of the Bible the word Glory, one of the commonest in the Scripture, is used to translate several Hebrew terms in the Old Testament, and the Greek doxa in the New Testament. Sometimes the Catholic versions employ brightness, where others use glory
Glory Be - The doxology in the form in which we know it has been used since about the seventh century all over Western Christendom, except in one corner
Glosses, Scriptural - The word gloss designates not only marginal notes, but also words or remarks inserted for various reasons in the very text of the Scriptures
Glossolalia - A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae, designed to aid in the outer development of the primitive Church
Gloves, Episcopal - Liturgical gloves are a liturgical adornment reserved for bishops and cardinals
Gluttony - The excessive indulgence in food and drink
Gnosticism - History of Gnosticism from its pre-Christian roots through its developed doctrines concerning cosmogony, the Sophia-myth, soteriology, and eschatology. Includes information on rites, schools, and literature
Goa - Archdiocese in India
God - Links to five articles about the subject
"God", Etymology of the Word - Anglo-Saxon God; German Gott; akin to Persian khoda; Hindu khooda
God, Existence of - The arguments for God's existence are variously classified and entitled by different writers, but all agree in recognizing the distinction between a priori, or deductive, and a posteriori, or inductive reasoning in this connection
God, Nature and Attributes of - Covered as natural reason and faith
God, Relation of the Universe to - Sections include essential dependence of the universe on God, divine immanence and transcendence, and possibility of the supernatural
God, Three Persons of - The term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion, the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these three persons being truly distinct one from another
Godfrey of Bouillon - Duke of Lower Lorraine and first King of Jerusalem, son of Eustache II, Count of Boulogne, and of Ida, daughter of Godfrey the Bearded, Duke of Lower Lorraine; b. probably at Boulogne-sur-Mer, 1060; d. at Jerusalem, 18 July, 1100
Gog and Magog - Names, respectively, of a king and of his supposed kingdom, mentioned several times in chapters 38 and 39 of the Book of Ezechiel, and once in the Apocalypse (20:7) Golden Bull - A fundamental law of the Holy Roman Empire; probably the best known of all the many ordinances of the imperial diet
Golden Calf - An object of worship among the Hebrews, mention of which occurs principally in Ex., xxxii, where the story of the molten calf of Aaron is narrated, and in 1 Kings 12 (cf. 2 Chronicles 11), in connection with the policy of Jeroboam after the schism of the ten tribes
Golden Rose/a - A precious and sacred ornament made of pure gold by skilled artificers, which the popes have been accustomed for centuries to bless each year, and occasionally confer upon illustrious churches and sanctuaries as a token of special reverence and devotion, upon Catholic kings or queens, princes or princesses, renowned generals or other distinguished personages, upon governments or cities conspicuous for their Catholic spirit and loyalty to the Holy See, as a mark of esteem and paternal affection
Golgotha - The place of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
Gonzaga, Saint Aloysius - Short biography of this Jesuit student, who died in 1591 at the age of 23
Gonzaga, Scipione - Cardinal; b. at Mantua, 11 November, 1542; d. at San Martino, 11 January, 1593
Good - The moral good (bonum honestum) consists in the due ordering of free action or conduct according to the norm of reason, the highest faculty, to which it is to conform
Good, Highest, The - (1)Utilitarianism, when the highest good is identified with happiness; (2)Rational Deontologism, when the highest good is identified with virtue or duty; (3)Rational Eudaemonism, or tempered Deontologism, when both virtue and happiness are combined in the highest good
Good Faith - A phrase employed to designate the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively unfounded, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct
Good Friday - The Friday on which the Church keeps the anniversary of the Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
Good Shepherd, Our Lady of Charity of the - The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who wish to do penance for their iniquities and to lead a truly christian life
Gordian - There were three Roman emperors of this name, who reigned between A.D. 237-44, and all of whom met with violent deaths
Gordon Riots - This agitation, so called from the head and spirit of the movement, Lord George Gordon, convulsed the metropolis of England from 2 June till 9 June, 1780
Gorkum, The Martyrs of - Their beatification took place on 14 Nov., 1675, and their canonization on 29 June, 1865
Gospel and Gospels - The word Gospel usually designates a written record of Christ's words and deeds
Gospel in the Liturgy - From the very earliest times the public reading of parts of the Bible was an important element in the Liturgy inherited from the service of the Synagogue
Gospel of Mark - The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem
Gothic Architecture - History of the style
Goupil, René - Short biography of the Jesuit missionary, martyred in 1642
Government Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Grace - Leads to four articles on the subject
Grace, Actual - A grace that is given for the performance of salutary acts and is present and disappears with the action itself
Grace, Supernatural - Treatise on this fundamental building block of Christianity
Grace, Controversies on - Controversies that are concerned chiefly with the relation between grace and free will
Grace at Meals - One of the most ancient formulae of prayer at meals is found in a treatise of the fourth century, attributed without foundation to Saint Athanasius
Gradual - In English often called Grail, is the oldest and most important of the four chants that make up the choir's part of the Proper of the Mass
Graffiti - The term in common usage among archaeologists to designate a class of rude inscriptions scratched on the walls of ancient monuments, generally sepulchral, as distinguised from the formal inscriptions engraved on the tombs of the deceased
Grail, The Holy - The name of a legendary sacred vessel, variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist or the dish of the Pascal lamb, and the theme of a famous medieval cycle of romance
Grande Chartreuse, La - The mother-house of the Carthusian Order lies in a high valley of the Alps of Dauphine
Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac Le - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660
Gratian - Details on this Roman Emperor who was the son of Valentinian I. He was born at Sirmium, 359 and died at Lyons, 383
Greco, El - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614
Greece - History of the country and church
Greek Catholics in America - Includes the history and statistics
Greek Church - Details the history and various divisions of the church
Greek Orthodox Church in America - The name Orthodox Church is generally used to distinguish those of the Greek Rite who are not in communion with the Holy See
Greek Rites - People who speak of the Greek Rite generally mean that of Constantinople
Gregorian Chant - Short description and history, with links to more information
Gregory I, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this Doctor of the Church, d. 604
Gregory II, Pope Saint - Also known as Gregory Junior, or Gregory the Younger, d. 731
Gregory III, Pope Saint - A Syrian, was elected the successor of Pope St. Gregory II by acclamation, d. 741
Gregory IV, Pope - Reigned 827-44
Gregory V, Pope - Reigned 996-999
Gregory VI, Pope - Reigned 1045-46
Gregory VI - Eleventh-century antipope
Gregory VII, Pope Saint - Also known as Hildebrand: 'one of the greatest of the Roman pontiffs and one of the most remarkable men of all times.' He died in 1085. Biographical article
Gregory VIII, Pope - Reigned 1187
Gregory VIII - Antipope placed upon the papal chair by Emperor Henry V, 8 March, 1118
Gregory IX - Reigned 1227-1241
Gregory X - Biographical article on this thirteenth-century pope. Includes bibliography
Gregory XI - Reigned 1370-1378
Gregory XII - Reigned 1406-1415
Gregory XIII, Pope - Reigned 1572-1585
Gregory XIV, Pope - Reigned 1590-1591
Gregory XV, Pope - Reigned 1621-1623
Gregory XVI, Pope - Reigned 1831-1846
Gregory of Nazianzus, Saint - Biographical article on this Doctor of the Church, known in the Christian East as St. Gregory the Theologian
Gregory of Neocaesarea, Saint - Also known as Gregory Thaumaturgus, converted to Christianity by Origen, became a bishop, d. between 270 and 275
Gregory of Nyssa, Saint - Bishop, one of the Cappadocian Fathers, d. after 385 or 386
Gregory of Tours, Saint - Lengthy article about this bishop, historian, and theologian. He died in 593 or 594
Gregory the Illuminator - Patron of Armenia. Husband and father, bishop, d. possibly in 337
Groote, Gerard - Founder of the 'Brethren of the Common Life', b. 1340 at Deventer, Gelderland; d. 20 Aug., 1384
Guadalupe, Shrine of - Guadalupe is strictly the name of a picture, but was extended to the church containing the picture and to the town that grew up around
Guaraní Indians - A tribal group of South America, having the former home territory chiefly between the Uruguay and lower Paraguay Rivers, in what is now Paraguay and the Provinces of Corrientes and Entre Rios of Argentina
Guardian Angels - The lowest orders of angels are sent to men
Guardian Angels, Feast of - This feast, like many others, was local before it was placed in the Roman calendar
Guayaquil - The capital of the Ecuadorian province of Guayas
Guelphs and Ghibellines - Names adopted by the two factions that kept Italy divided and devastated by civil war during the greater part of the later Middle Ages
Guéranger, Prosper Louis Pascal - Benedictine and polygraph; b. 4 April, 1805, at Sable-sur-Sarthe; d. at Solesmes, 30 January, 1875
Guérin, Anne-Thérèse - In religion, Mother Theodore. Born at Etables (Cote du Nord), Brittany, France, 2 October, 1798; died 14 May, 1856
Guibert of Ravenna - An antipope, known as Clement III, 1080 (1084) to 1100; born at Parma about 1025; died at Civita Castellana, 8 Sept., 1100
Guido of Arezzo - Article with life and summary of his contributions to musical theory and composition
Guilds - Voluntary associations for religious, social, and commercial purposes
Guise, House of - A branch of the ducal family of Lorraine who played an important part in the religious troubles of France during the seventeenth century
Gunpowder Plot, The - Oath taken May, 1604, plot discovered November, 1605. Robert Catesby, the originator of the Powder Plot, owned estates at Lapworth and Ashby St. Legers
Gutenberg, Johann - Inventor of printing (1400-1467)
Guyon, Jeanne-Marie-Bouvier de La Motte- - Essay on the life, experiences, and teachings of this seventeenth-century French mystic

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     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for H or use the search box at the top of this page.

Habacuc - Article on the minor prophet of the Old Testament, and his book
Habakkuk - Article on the minor prophet of the Old Testament, and his book
Habit - Habit is an effect of repeated acts and an aptitude to reproduce them, and may be defined as 'a quality difficult to change, whereby an agent whose nature it is to work one way or another indeterminately, is disposed easily and readily at will to follow this or that particular line of action'
Haceldama - The name given by the people to the potter's field, purchased with the price of the treason of Judas
Hadrian, Publius Ælius - Emperor of the Romans; born 24 January, A.D. 76 at Rome; died 10 July, 138
Haggai - The tenth among the minor prophets of the Old Testament
Hagiography - The name given to that branch of learning which has the saints and their worship for its object
Hail Holy Queen - The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Hail Mary - Analysis of the prayer Ave Maria: origins and development
Hair (in Christian Antiquity) - The paintings in the catacombs permit the belief that the early Christians simply followed the fashion of their time. The short hair of the men and the waved tresses of the women were, towards the end of the second century, curled, frizzed with irons, and arranged in tiers, while for women the hair twined about the head forming a high diadem over the brow
Hairshirt - A garment of rough cloth made from goats' hair and worn in the form of a shirt or as a girdle around the loins, by way of mortification and penance
Haiti - An island of the Greater Antilles
Halloween - Celebrated on the first of November. Instituted to honour all the saints, known and unknown, and, according to Urban IV, to supply any deficiencies in the faithful's celebration of saints' feasts during the year
Ham, Hamites - Son of Noe and progenitor of one of the three great races of men whose ethnographical table is given by Genesis 10
Hammurabi - The sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty
Happiness - The primary meaning of this term in all the leading European languages seems to involve the notion of good fortune, good chance, good happening
Haraldson, Saint Olaf - Martyr and King of Norway, d. 1030
Harmony - A concord of sounds, several tones of different pitch sounded as a chord; among the Greeks, the general term for music
Harold Bluetooth - Son of King Gorm the Old of Denmark (911-986)
Harris, Joel Chandler - Folklorist, novelist, poet, journalist; born at Eatonton, Georgia, U.S.A., 1848; died at Atlanta, Georgia, 3 July, 1908
Harrowing of Hell - This is the Old English and Middle English term for the triumphant descent of Christ into hell (or Hades) between the time of His Crucifixion and His Resurrection, when, according to Christian belief, He brought salvation to the souls held captive there since the beginning of the world
Hatred - In general, a vehement aversion entertained by one person for another, or for something more or less identified with that other
Haydn, Franz Joseph - Famous composer (1732-1809)
Haydock, George Leo - Priest and biblical scholar (1774-1849)
Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart
Heart of Mary, Devotion to the - Description of this devotion, along with its history
Heaven - In the Holy Bible the term heaven denotes, in the first place, the blue firmament, or the region of the clouds that pass along the sky. Gen., i, 20, speaks of the birds 'under the firmament of heaven'. In other passages it denotes the region of the stars that shine in the sky. Furthermore heaven is spoken of as the dwelling of God; for, although God is omnipresent, He manifests Himself in a special manner in the light and grandeur of the firmament
Hebrew Bible - As compared with the Latin Vulgate, the Hebrew Bible includes the entire Old Testament with the exception of the seven deuterocanonical books, Tobias, Judith, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch, I and II Machabees, and the deuterocanonical portions of Esther (x, 4 to end) and Daniel (iii, 24-90; xiii; xiv)
Hebrew Language and Literature - Hebrew was the language spoken by the ancient Israelites, and in which were composed nearly all of the books of the Old Testament
Hebrews, Epistle to the - The central thought of the entire Epistle is the doctrine of the Person of Christ and His Divine mediatorial office
Hecker, Isaac Thomas - Missionary, author, founder of the Paulists; b. in New York, 18 December, 1819; d. there, 22 Dec., 1888
Hedonism - The name given to the group of ethical systems that hold, with various modifications, that feelings of pleasure or happiness are the highest and final aim of conduct; that, consequently those actions which increase the sum of pleasure are thereby constituted right, and, conversely, what increases pain is wrong
Hedwig, Saint - Duchess of Silesia, aunt of St. Elizabeth of Hungary. Hedwig married Henry I, and was the mother of seven. Upon her husband's death, she entered a Cistercian monastery. Died 1243
Hegelianism - Article by William Turner, evaluating this school of thought
Helena, Saint - The mother of Constantine the Great, she died about 330
Helen of Sköfde, Saint - Biography of the twelfth-century Swedish widow and martyr, killed in perhaps the year 1160
Heli - Discusses the Old Testament priest, and the New Testament father of Joseph
Hell - Hell (infernus) in theological usage is a place of punishment after death
Helmont, Jan Baptista van - Born at Brussels, 1577; died near Vilvorde, 30 December, 1644. This scientist, distinguished in the early annals of chemistry, belonged to a Flemish family
Hennepin, Louis - One of the most famous explorers in the wilds of North America during the seventeenth century
Henoch - The name of the son of Cain (Gen., iv, 17, 18), of a nephew of Abraham (Gen., xxv, 4), of the first-born of Ruben (Gen., xlvi, 9), and of the son of Jared and the father of Mathusala (Gen., v. 18 sq.)
Henoch, Book of - Introductory article
Henry II - Biographical article that focuses on the King of England's constitutional and legal reforms, and his conflict with Thomas Becket
Henry II, Saint - Biography of the German king and Holy Roman Emperor, d. 1024
Henry IV - King of France and Navarre (1553-1610)
Henry IV - German king and Holy Roman Emperor (1050-1108)
Henry VIII - Lengthy article which concentrates on Henry's break with the Church of Rome
Henry Suso, Blessed - Biography of this German Dominican mystic, d. 1366
Henry the Navigator, Prince - Born 4 March, 1394; died 13 November, 1460; he was the fourth son of John I, King of Portugal, by Queen Philippa, a daughter of John of Gaunt
Heptarchy - By the term heptarchy is understood that complexus of seven kingdoms, into which, roughly speaking, Anglo-Saxon Britain was divided for nearly three centuries, until at last the supremacy, about the year 829, fell definitely and finally into the hands of Wessex
Heraldry, Ecclesiastical - Information on heraldry as it is used in and by the Catholic Church
Herbart and Herbartianism - Article on the life and philosophy of Johann Friedrich Herbart, by Michael Maher
Herder - The name of a German firm of publishers and booksellers
Heredity - The offspring tends to resemble, sometimes with extraordinary closeness, the parents
Heresy - St. Thomas defines heresy: 'a species of infidelity in men who, having professed the faith of Christ, corrupt its dogmas'
Hermann Contractus - Chronicler, mathematician, and poet (1013-1054)
Hermanos Penitentes, Los - A society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado.
Hermas - First or second century, author of the book called 'The Shepherd' (Poimen, Pastor), a work which had great authority in ancient times and was ranked with Holy Scripture
Hermeneutics - Derived from a Greek word connected with the name of the god Hermes, the reputed messenger and interpreter of the gods
Hermits - Also called anchorites, men who fled the society of their fellow-men to dwell alone in retirement
Hermits of St. Augustine - A religious order which in the thirteenth century combined several monastic societies into one, under this name
Hermon - A group of mountains forming the southern extremity of Anti-Lebanon, and marking on the east of the Jordan the northern boundary of Israel
Herod - Herod was the name of many rulers mentioned in the N.T. and in history. It was known long before the time of the biblical Herods
Herodias - Wife of Herod Philip, and mistress of Herod Antipas
Heroic Act of Charity - A decree of the Sacred Congregation of Indulgences dated 18 December, 1885, and confirmed the following day by Leo XIII
Heroic Virtue - St. Augustine first applied the pagan title of hero to the Christian martyrs
Hesychasm - Hesychasts (hesychastes — quietist) were people, nearly all monks, who defended the theory that it is possible by an elaborate system of asceticism, detachment from earthly cares, submission to an approved master, prayer, especially perfect repose of body and will, to see a mystic light; which is none other than the uncreated light of God
Hexaemeron - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis
Hexapla - Article on Origen's compilation of six ancient versions of the Bible in parallel columns, his purpose and the principles that guided his work
Hezekiah - King of Juda, son and successor of Achaz
Hibernians, Ancient Order of - This organization grew up gradually among the Catholics of Ireland owing to the dreadful hardships and persecutions to which they were subjected
Hidalgo, Miguel - Mexican patriot (1753-1811)
Hierarchy - This word has been used to denote the totality of ruling powers in the Church, ever since the time of the Pseudo-Dionysius Areopagita (sixth century), who consecrated the expression in his works, 'The Celestial Hierarchy' and 'The Ecclesiastical Hierarchy'
Hierarchy of the Early Church - The word hierarchy is used here to denote the three grades of bishop, priest, and deacon (ministri)
High Altar - The chief altar in a church, raised on an elevated plane in the sanctuary, where it may be seen simultaneously by all the faithful in the body of the church
Higher Criticism - Biblical criticism in its fullest comprehension is the examination of the literary origins and historical values of the books composing the Bible, with the state in which these exist at the present day
High Priest, The - The chief priest in the Old Testament
Hilarius, Pope Saint - As an archdeacon, he had acted as one of Pope St. Leo the Great's legates at the 'Robber Synod.' Biographical article
Hilarus, Pope Saint - As an archdeacon, he had acted as one of Pope St. Leo the Great's legates at the 'Robber Synod.' Biographical article
Hilary of Poitiers, Saint - Biographical article on this bishop, a staunch opponent of Arianism, who died in 368. Includes bibliography
Hilda, Saint - Biographical article on the influential abbess, who died in 680
Hildegard, Saint - Seer and prophet, Sibyl of the Rhine, d. 1179. Never formally canonized, but she is listed in the Roman Martyrology
Hillel - Short essay on the Jewish rabbi and philosopher
Hilton, Walter - Article about the spiritual writings of this Augustinian mystic, d. 1396
Hinduism - The conglomeration of religious beliefs and practices existing in India that have grown out of ancient Brahminism
Hippo Regius - Titular see of Numidia
Hippolytus of Rome, Saint - Presbyter, antipope, martyr, died about 236
Historical Criticism - The art of distinguishing the true from the false concerning facts of the past
History, Ecclesiastical - A survey of the role of church history, the history of the Catholic Church and historiography of church history
Holbein, Hans - A German painter; b. at Augsburg about 1460; d. at Isenheim, Alsace, in 1524
Holiness - Holiness or sanctity is the outcome of sanctification, that Divine act by which God freely justifies us, and by which He has claimed us for His own; by our resulting sanctity, in act as well as in habit, we claim Him as our Beginning and as the End towards which we daily unflinchingly tend
Holmes, John - Catholic educator and priest; born at Windsor, Vermont, in 1799; died at Lorette, near Quebec, Canada, in 1852
Holocaust - As suggested by its Greek origin (holos 'whole', and kaustos 'burnt') the word designates an offering entirely consumed by fire, in use among the Jews and some pagan nations of antiquity. [Definition from 1910.]
Holy Coat - The possession of the seamless garment of Christ, for which the soldiers cast lots at the Crucifixion, is claimed by the cathedral of Trier and by the parish church of Argenteuil
Holy Communion - By Communion is meant the actual reception of the Sacrament of the Eucharist
Holy Cross, Congregation of - A body of priests and lay brothers constituted in the religious state by the simple vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, and bearing the common name of Religious of Holy Cross
Holy Cross, Sisters of the - Mother House, St. Mary's of the Immaculate Conception, Notre Dame, Indiana
Holy Ghost - The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity
Holy Ghost, Religious Congregations of the - Several groups by this name are covered
Holy Grail, The - The name of a legendary sacred vessel, variously identified with the chalice of the Eucharist or the dish of the Pascal lamb, and the theme of a famous medieval cycle of romance
Holy House of Loreto - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy
Holy Innocents - Fairly long article on these children, and the commemoration of their martyrdom. Both Western and Eastern Christianity
Holy Name, Society of the - A.k.a. Holy Name Society. Men's confraternity to encourage prayer
Holy Name of Jesus - Reverence for the name of Jesus is not optional for believers. Article highlights the Scriptural reasons, and describes some customary ways of showing reverence
Holy Oils - Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic signification of which harmonizes with its natural uses. It serves to sweeten, to strengthen, to render supple; and the Church employs it for these purposes in its rites
Holy Orders - The sacrament by which grace and spiritual power for the discharge of ecclesiastical offices are conferred.
Holy Saturday - In the early Church this was the only Saturday on which fasting was permitted (Constit. Apost., VII, 23), and the fast was one of special severity
Holy See - A term derived from the enthronement-ceremony of the bishops of Rome
Holy Sepulchre - The tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death upon the Cross
Holy Sepulchre, Knights of the - A secular confraternity which gradually grew up around the most august of the Holy Places
Holy Spirit - The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity
Holy Stairs (Scala Sancta) - Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition the staircase leading once to the praetorium of Pilate at Jerusalem, hence sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during his Passion
Holy Synod - The name of the council by which the Church of Russia and, following its example, many other Orthodox Churches are governed
Holy Thursday - The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the observances peculiar to Holy Week
Holy Water - In the earliest Christian times, water was used for expiatory and purificatory purposes, to a way analogous to its employment under the Jewish Law
Holy Water Fonts - Vessels intended for the use of holy water
Holy Week - The week which precedes the great festival of the Resurrection on Easter Sunday, and which consequently is used to commemorate the Passion of Christ, and the event which immediately led up to it
Holy Year of Jubilee - Background information relating to the Jubilee
Homicide - Signifies, in general, the killing of a human being. In practice, however, the word has come to mean the unjust taking away of human life, perpetrated by one distinct from the victim and acting in a private capacity
Homiletics - Lengthy historical article. Includes extensive bibliography
Homily - Etymology, early development. Also a summary of four ways of preaching on Scripture
Homoousion - The word used by the Council of Nicaea (325) to express the Divinity of Christ
Honorius I, Pope - Reigned 625-638
Honorius II, Pope - Archdeacon of Bologna. Died at Rome, 14 February, 1130
Honorius III, Pope - Born at Rome, date of birth unknown; died at Rome, 18 March, 1227
Honorius IV, Pope - Born at Rome about 1210; died at Rome, 3 April, 1287
Honour - May be defined as the deferential recognition by word or sign of another's worth or station
Hood - A flexible, conical, brimless head-dress, covering the entire head, except the face
Hope - The desire of something together with the expectation of obtaining it
Hopi Indians - A tribe of Pueblo Indians of Shoshonean stock
Hopkins, Gerard Manley - Jesuit and poet (1844-1889)
Hormisdas, Pope Saint - Died 523. The father of Pope Silverius
Hosanna - The general opinion is that of St. Jerome, that the word originated from two Hebrew words of Psalm 117:25. This psalm, was recited by one of the priests every day during the procession round the altar, during the Feast of Tabernacles, when the people were commanded to 'rejoice before the Lord' (Leviticus 23:40); and on the seventh day it was recited each time during the seven processions
Hosea - The prophet and his book
Hospice - During the early centuries of Christianity the hospice was a shelter for the sick, the poor, the orphans, the old, the travellers and the needy of every kind
Hospitality - In the religious orders the duty of hospitality was insisted upon from the beginning both in East and West
Hospitallers - During the Middle Ages, among the hospitals established throughout, religious of both sexes lived under one roof, following the Rule of St. Augustine
Hospitallers of St. John of Jerusalem - The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration
Hospitals - Originally, hospital meant a place where strangers or visitors were received; in the course of time, its use was restricted to institutions for the care of the sick
Host - Archaeological and historical aspects
Hottentots - One of three tribes of South Africa which may be divided Bantus, Hottentots, and Bushmen
Hours, Canonical - Essay on the practice of reciting the Divine Office according to set hours
Hours, Liturgy of the - Brief essay on the historical development of the Liturgy of the Hours
Hroswitha - A celebrated nun-poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, Roswitha, Hrotswitha, Hrosvitha, and Hrotsuit; born probably between 930 and 940, died about 1002
Hubert, Saint - Confessor, first bishop of Liege, d. 727 or 728
Hugh, Saint - Article on Little St. Hugh of Lincoln
Hugh Capet - King of France, founder of the Capetian dynasty, b. about the middle of the tenth century; d. about 996, probably 24 October
Hughes, John - Fourth bishop and first Archbishop of New York, born at Annaloghan, Co. Tyrone, Ireland, 24 June, 1797 of Patrick Hughes and Margaret McKenna: died in New York, 3 January, 1864
Hugh of Lincoln, Saint - Biography of this Augustinian and later a Carthusian, d. 1200, canonized 1220
Hugh of St. Victor - Lengthy essay on the life and writings of this philosopher, theologian, and mystical writer
Hugh the Great, Saint - Biographical article on the distinguished and influential Abbot of Cluny, d. 1109
Huguenots - An extensive history of this French Protestant tradition
Human Acts - St. Thomas and the scholastics in general regard only the free and deliberate acts of the will as human
Humanism - The name given to the intellectual, literary, and scientific movement of the fourteenth to the sixteenth centuries, which aimed at basing every branch of learning on the literature and culture of classical antiquity
Humeral Veil - The name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 feet long and 18 inches wide
Humility - The word humility signifies lowliness or submissiveness an it is derived from the Latin humilitas or, as St. Thomas says, from humus, i.e. the earth which is beneath us
Hungarian Catholics in America - Information about immigrants from this country
Hungary - History of the country
Hunting, Canons on - From early times, hunting, in one form or another has been forbidden to clerics
Huron Indians - If language may be taken as a fair criterion to go by, the Hurons proper were the original stock from which sprang all the branches of the great Iroquoian family, whether included in the primitive federation of the Five Nations, or standing apart territorially, within historical times, as did the Tuskaroras, the Cherokees, and the Andastes
Hurter - Several members of this family detailed
Hus, Jan - Biographical article, with extensive hyperlinks
Hussites - The followers of Jan Hus did not of themselves assume the name of Hussites. Like Hus, they believed their creed to be truly Catholic; in papal and conciliar documents they appear as Wycliffites, although Hus and even Jerome of Prague are also named as their leaders
Hyacinth, Saint - Polish Dominican, died in 1257
Hyderabad-Deccan, Diocese of - Hyderabad, also called Bhagnagar, and Fakhunda Bunyad, capital of the Nizam's dominions, was founded in 1589, by Mohammed Kuli, King of Golconda
Hyginus, Pope Saint - Greek by birth, the successor of Pope Telesphorus. Died in about 142
Hylozoism - The doctrine according to which all matter possesses life
Hymn - A derivative of the Latin hymnus, which comes from the Greek hymnos, derived from hydein, to sing
Hymnody and Hymnology - Hymnody means exactly 'hymn song', but as the hymn-singer as well as the hymn-poet are included under (hymnodos), so we also include under hymnody the hymnal verse or religious lyric. Hymnology is the science of hymnody or the historico-philogical investigation and aesthetic estimation of hymns and hymn writers
Hypnotism - The nervous sleep, induced by artificial and external means, which has been made the subject of experiment and methodical study by men of science, physicians or physiologists
Hypocrisy - The pretension to qualities which one does not possess, or, more cognately to the scope of this article, the putting forward of a false appearance of virtue or religion
Hypostatic Union - A theological term used with reference to the Incarnation to express the revealed truth that in Christ one person subsists in two natures, the Divine and the human
Hyssop - A plant which is referred to in a few passages of Holy Writ, and which cannot be identified with certainty at the present day

I

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Ichthys (Fish), Symbolism of the - The symbol itself may have been suggested by the miraculous multification of the loaves and fishes or the repast of the seven Disciples, after the Resurrection, on the shore of the Sea of Galilee, but its popularity among Christians was due principally, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and His claim to the worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, i.e. Jesus Christ, Son of God, Saviour
Iconoclasm - The name of the heresy that in the eighth and ninth centuries disturbed the peace of the Eastern Church, caused the last of the many breaches with Rome that prepared the way for the schism of Photius, and was echoed on a smaller scale in the Frankish kingdom in the West
Iconography, Christian - The science of the description, history, and interpretation of the traditional representations of God, the saints and other sacred subjects in art
Iconium - A titular see of Lycaonia
Iconostasis - A great screen or partition running from side to side of the apse or across the entire end of the church, which divides the sanctuary from the body of the church, and is built of solid materials such as stone, metal, or wood, and which reaches often (as in Russia) to the very ceiling of the church, thus completely shutting off the altar and the sanctuary from the worshipper
Idea - The word was originally Greek, but passed
without change into Latin. It seems first to have meant form, shape, or appearance, whence, by an easy transition, it acquired the connotation of nature, or kind
Idealism - The characteristic of those who regard the ideas of truth and right, goodness and beauty, as standards and directive forces
Idioms, Communication of - A technical expression in the theology of the Incarnation. It means that the properties of the Divine Word can be ascribed to the man Christ, and that the properties of the man Christ can be predicated of the Word
Idiota - The nom de plume of an ancient, learned, and pious writer whose identity remained unknown for some centuries
Idolatry - Etymologically denotes divine worship given to an image, but its signification has been extended to all divine worship given to anyone or anything but the true God
Idumea - The country inhabited by the descendants of Edom
Ignatius Loyola, Saint - Biography of the Spanish founder of the Jesuits, who died in 1556
Ignatius of Antioch, Saint - Biography of the bishop and writer. Ignatius was martyred at Rome sometime between 98 and 117
Ignorance - Lack of knowledge about a thing in a being capable of knowing
IHS - A monogram of the name of Jesus Christ
Illegitimacy - As generally defined, and as understood in this article, illegitimacy denotes the condition of children born out of wedlock
Illinois - One of the United States of America, bounded on the north by Wisconsin, on the west by the Mississippi, which separates it from Iowa and Missouri, on the south by the confluent waters of the Mississippi and the Ohio, which separate it from Kentucky, on the east by Indiana and Lake Michigan
Illuminated Manuscripts - A large number of manuscripts covered with painted ornaments
Illuminati - Secret society founded in 1776
Illuminative Way - Stages in the spiritual life
Illyria - A district of the Balkan Peninsula, which has varied in extent at different periods
Images, Veneration of - It is an uncompromising attitude in the late Jewish history, together with the apparently obvious meaning of the First Commandment, that are responsible for the common idea that Jews had no images
Imagination - The faculty of representing to oneself sensible objects independently of an actual impression of those objects on our senses
Imitation of Christ - A work of spiritual devotion, also sometimes called the 'Following of Christ'. Its purpose is to instruct the soul in Christian perfection with Christ as the Divine Model
Immaculate Conception - In the Constitution Ineffabilis Deus of 8 December, 1854, Pius IX pronounced and defined that the Blessed Virgin Mary 'in the first instance of her conception, by a singular privilege and grace granted by God, in view of the merits of Jesus Christ, the Saviour of the human race, was preserved exempt from all stain of original sin.'
Immanence - Latin, in manere, to remain in. The quality of any action which begins and ends within the agent
Immanuel - Signifies 'God with us' (Matthew 1:23), and is the name of the child predicted in Isaias 7:14: 'Behold a virgin shall conceive, and bear a son, and his name shall be called Emmanuel'
Immortality - By immortality is ordinarily understood the doctrine that the human soul will survive death, continuing in the possession of an endless conscious existence
Immunity - An exemption from a legal obligation (munus), imposed on a person or his property by law, custom, or the order of a superior
Impanation - An heretical doctrine according to which Christ is in the Eucharist through His human body substantially united with the substances of bread and wine, and thus is really present as God, made bread
Impediments, Canonical - Canon law uses the word impediment in its restricted and technical sense, only in reference to marriage, while impediments to Holy orders are spoken of as irregularities
Imperative, Categorical - A term which originated in Immanuel Kant's ethics
Imperfect Contrition - Also called 'imperfect contrition.' Definition, its relation to sacramental penance, and moral considerations
Imposition of Hands - A symbolical ceremony by which one intends to communicate to another some favour, quality or excellence (principally of a spiritual kind), or to depute another to some office
Impostors - That there would be hypocrites who would take advantage of a profession of piety to mask their own evil designs had been clearly foretold by Christ in the Gospels
In Partibus Infidelium - A term meaning 'in the lands of the unbelievers,' words added to the name of the see conferred on non-residential or titular Latin bishops
In Petto - An Italian translation of the Latin in pectore, 'in the breast', i.e. in the secret of the heart
Incardination and Excardination - In the ecclesiastical sense the words are used to denote that a given person is freed from the jurisdiction of one bishop and is transferred to that of another
Incarnation, The - The Incarnation is the mystery and the dogma of the Word made Flesh
Incense - An aromatic substance which is obtained from certain resinous trees and largely employed for purposes of religious worship
Incest - Sexual intercourse between those who are related by blood or marriage
Index of Prohibited Books - The exact list or catalogue of books, the reading of which was once forbidden to Catholics by the highest ecclesiastical authority
India - The peninsula is separated on the north from Tibet and Central Asia by the Himalaya, Hindu Kush, and Karakoram mountains, and some lower ranges divide it from Afghanistan and Baluchistan
Indians, American - History, customs, and language are covered here
Indifferentism, Religious - The term given, in general, to all those theories, which, for one reason or another, deny that it is the duty of man to worship God by believing and practicing the one true religion
Individualism - The tendency to magnify individual liberty, as against external authority, and individual activity, as against associated activity
Individual, Individuality - An individual being is defined by St. Thomas as 'quod est in se indivisum, ab aliis vero divisum' (a being undivided in itself but separated from other beings)
Indo-China - The most easterly of the three great peninsulas of Southern Asia, is bounded on the north by the mountains of Assam, the Plateau of Yun-nan, and the mountains of Kwang-si; on the east by the province of Kwang-si (Canton), the Gulf of Tong-king, and the Sea of China; on the south by the Sea of China, the Gulf of Siam and the Strait of Malacca; on the west by the Gulf of Martaban and the Bay of Bengal
Induction - Induction is the conscious mental process by which we pass from the perception of particular phenomena (things and events) to the knowledge of general truths
Indulgences - A remission of the temporal punishment due to sin, the guilt of which has been forgiven
Indulgences, Apostolic - Those which the Roman pontiff, the successor of the Prince of the Apostles, attaches to the crosses, crucifixes, chaplets, rosaries, images, and medals which he blesses, either with his own hand or by those to whom he has delegated this faculty
Indult, Pontifical - General faculties granted by the Holy See to bishops and others, of doing something not permitted by the common law
Infallibility - In general, exemption or immunity from liability to error or failure; in particular in theological usage, the supernatural prerogative by which the Church of Christ is, by a special Divine assistance, preserved from liability to error in her definitive dogmatic teaching regarding matters of faith and morals
Infamy - Loss of a good name
Infanticide - Child-murder; the killing of an infant before or after birth
Infidels - As in ecclesiastical language those who by baptism have received faith in Jesus Christ and have pledged Him their fidelity and called the faithful, so the name infidel is given to those who have not been baptized
Infinity - The infinite, as the word indicates, is that which has no end, no limit, no boundary, and therefore cannot be measured by a finite standard, however often applied; it is that which cannot be attained by successive addition, not exhausted by successive subtraction of finite quantities
Infralapsarians - The name given to a party of Dutch Calvinists in the seventeenth century, who sought to mitigate the rigour of Calvin's doctrine concerning absolute predestination
Ingres, Jean-Auguste Dominique - A French painter, b. at Montauban, 29 August, 1780; d. at Paris, 14 January, 1867
Injustice - The violation of another's strict right against his reasonable will, and the value of the word right is determined to be the moral power of having or doing or exacting something in support or furtherance of one's own advantage
Innocent I, Pope - Unanimously chosen to succeed Anastasius. Essay on his writings and some of the more notable events of his pontificate. Innocent died in 417
Innocent II, Pope - Reigned 1130-1143
Innocent III, Pope - Reigned 1198-1216
Innocent IV, Pope - Reigned 1243-1254
Innocent V, Blessed Pope - French Dominican, known as 'most famous doctor,' d. 1276
Innocent VI, Pope - Reigned 1352-1362
Innocent VII, Pope - Reigned 1406
Innocent VIII, Pope - Reigned 1484-1492
Innocent IX, Pope - Reigned 1591
Innocent X, Pope - Reigned 1644-1655
Innocent XI, Pope - Lengthy biography of this pope known for his piety and unselfish devotion to duty
Innocent XII, Pope - Reigned 1691-1700
Innocent XIII, Pope - Reigned 1721-24
Inquisition - By this term is usually meant a special ecclesiastical institutional for combating or suppressing heresy
Insane, Asylums and Care for the - The Church, from the earliest times, arranged for the care of the insane
Insanity - The dividing line between sanity and insanity, like the line that distinguishes a man of average height from a tall man, can be described only in terms of a moral estimate
Inscriptions, Early Christian - Divided into three main classes: sepulchral inscriptions, epigraphic records, and inscriptions concerning private life
Inspiration of the Bible - Covered in four sections, I. Belief in Inspired books; II. Nature of Inspiration; III. Extent of Inspiration; IV. Protestant Views on the Inspiration of the Bible
Installation - This word, strictly speaking, applies to the solemn induction of a canon into the stall or seat which he is to occupy in the choir of a cathedral or collegiate church
Instinct - The term usually includes the idea of a purposive adaptation of an action or series of actions in an organized being, not governed by consciousness of the end to be attained
Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools - A society of male religious approved by the Church, but not taking Holy orders, and having for its object the personal sanctification of its members and the Christian education of youth, especially of the children of artisans and the poor
Intellect - The faculty of thought
Intention - An act of the will by which that faculty efficaciously desires to reach an end by employing the means
Intercession - To go or come between two parties, to plead before one of them on behalf of the other
Interdict - Originally in Roman law, an interlocutory edict of the praetor, especially in matter affecting the right of possession; it still preserves this meaning in both Roman and canon law
Interest (in Economics) - A value exacted or promised over and above the restitution of a borrowed capital
Introit - The Introit (Introitus) of the Mass is the fragment of a psalm with its antiphon sung while the celebrant and ministers enter the church and approach the altar
Intrusion - The act by which unlawful possession of an ecclesiastical benefice is taken
Intuition - A psychological and philosophical term which designates the process of immediate apprehension or perception of an actual fact, being, or relation between two terms and its results
Investitures, Conflict of - The terminus technicus for the great struggle between the popes and the German kings Henry IV and Henry V, during the period 1075-1122
Invincible Armada, The - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown
Ireland - Ireland lies in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Great Britain . . .
Irenaeus, Saint - Article on the bishop of Lyons, Father of the Church, d. late second or early third century
Irish, The (outside Ireland) - Includes the United States, Australia, Canada, Great Britain, South Africa, and South America
Irish Confessors and Martyrs - The period covered by this article embraces that between the years 1540 and (approximately) 1713
Irish Literature - It is uncertain at what period and in what manner the Irish discovered the use of letters. It may have been through direct commerce with Gaul, but it is more probable, as McNeill has shown in his study of Irish oghams, that it was from the Romanized Britons that they first learned the art of writing
Iroquois - A noted confederacy of five, and afterwards six, cognate tribes of Iroquoian stock, and closely cognate languages, formerly occupying central New York, and claiming right of conquest over nearly all the tribes from Hudson Bay to Tennessee River, and westward to Lake Michigan and Illinois River
Irregularity - A canonical impediment directly impeding the reception of tonsure and Holy orders or preventing the exercise of orders already received
Irvingites - A religious sect called after Edward Irving (1792-1834), a deposed Presbyterian minister
Isaac - The son of Abraham and Sara
Isaac Jogues, Saint - French Jesuit missionary to Canada, martyred in 1646
Isabella I - Queen of Castile (1451-1504)
Isabel of France, Saint - Daughter of Blanche of Castille and sister of St. Louis IX. Founded a convent of Poor Clares. Died 1270
Isaias - Essay on the Biblical prophet and the book which bears his name
Ishmael - Son of Abraham and Hagar
Isidore of Seville, Saint - Biographical entry for this bishop, who died in 636
Isidore the Labourer, Saint - Spanish day laborer, married to St. María de la Cabeza. He died in 1130
Islam (Concept) - An Arabic word which, since
Mohammed's time, has acquired a religious and technical significance denoting the religion of Mohammed and of the Koran, just as Christianity denotes that of Jesus and of the Gospels, or Judaism that of Moses, the Prophets, and of the Old Testament
Islam (Religion) - Mohammed, 'the Praised One', the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) A.D. 570
Ismael - Son of Abraham and Hagar
Israelites - The word designates the descendants of the Patriarch Jacob, or Israel
Italian Literature - The modern language of Italy is naturally derived from Latin, a continuation and development of the Latin actually spoken among the inhabitants of the peninsula after the downfall of the Roman Empire
Italians in the United States - Information on distribution, statistics, and religion
Italy - In ancient times Italy had several other names: it was called Saturnia, in honour of Saturn; Enotria, wine-producing land; Ausonia, land of the Ausonians; Hesperia, land to the west (of Greece); Tyrrhenia, etc. The name Italy, which seems to have been taken from vitulus, to signify a land abounding in cattle, was applied at first to a very limited territory
Ite Missa Est - This is the versicle chanted in the Roman Rite by the deacon at the end of Mass, after the Post-Communions
Ives, Saint - Or St. Yves. Patron saint of lawyers, d. 1303
Ivory - The tusks of the elephant, hippopotamus, walrus, and other animals: a tough and elastic substance, of a creamy white, taking a high and lasting polish, largely employed in the arts since pre-historic times, and used extensively in making or adorning ecclesiastical objects by the primitive and medieval Christians

J

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for I or use the search box at the top of this page.

Jacob - The son of Isaac and Rebecca, third great patriarch of the chosen people, and the immediate ancestor of the twelve tribes of Israel
Jacopone da Todi - More properly called Jacopo Benedetti. Biographical article on the lawyer, widower, Franciscan poet sympathetic to the Spirituals, who died about 1306
Jainism - A form of religion intermediate between Brahminism and Buddhism, originated in India in pre-Christian times
Jamaica - The largest of the British West Indian islands, situated in the Caribbean Sea
James, Epistle of Saint - The author is commonly identified with the Lord's brother, the Bishop of Jerusalem; the view that the Lord's brother must be identified with James, the son of Alpheus, is by far the most probable
James the Greater, Saint - What can be known of St. James, son of Zebedee and brother of John, from Scripture. Also discusses the tradition that St. James preached in Spain and that his body was translated to Compostela
James the Less, Saint - Identifies James the Less with James the Apostle, son of Alpheus, and with James the brother of the Lord
James Thompson, Blessed - Also called James Hudson. Priest who was imprisoned and then martyred at York in 1582
Jane Frances de Chantal, Saint - Biography of the widowed baroness, mother, founder of the Congregation of the Visitation, who died in 1641
Jansenius and Jansenism - The subject of this article lived three-quarters of a century later than his namesake. He was born 28 October, 1585, of a Catholic family, in the village of Accoi, near Leerdam, Holland; died at Ypres, 6 May, 1638
Janssen, Arnold - Short biography of the founder of the Society of the Divine Word
Januarius, Saint - Bishop of Beneventum, martyr, believed to have died in the Diocletian persecution, c. 305. Article has a lengthy discussion of the liquefaction of the saint's blood
Japan - Called in the language of the country Nihon or Nippon (Land of the Rising Sun), and Dai Nihon or Dai Nippon (Great Japan), situated north-west of the Pacific Ocean and east of the Asiatic continent
Japanese Martyrs - The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860
Jealousy - Taken to be synonymous with envy
Jean Eudes, Blessed - French missionary, religious founder, writer, d. 1680
Jean-Baptiste-Marie Vianney, Saint - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869
Jeanne de Valois, Saint - Biography of St. Jeanne, also known as Jehanne de France or Jane of Valois, queen, founder of the Annonciades. She died in 1505
Jehoshaphat, Valley of - Mentioned in only one passage of the Bible (Joel, iii-Heb. text, iv)
Jehovah - Proper name of God in the Old Testament
Jeremiah the Prophet - Background information on his era. His life and mission. Analysis of the Biblical book which bears his name
Jeroboam - Name of two Israelitish kings
Jerome, Saint - Lengthy article on the life and works of St. Jerome
Jerome Emiliani, Saint - Soldier, priest, founder of the Order of Somascha, d. 1537
Jerusalem (Before A.D. 71) - This article deals with the destruction by the Romans after it had become the scene of the Redemption
Jerusalem (71-1099) - History in several periods to the first crusade
Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291) - Founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed a first time by Saladin in 1187, it was re-established around Saint-Jean d'Acre and maintained until the capture of that city in 1291
Jerusalem (After 1291) - The Latin dominion over Jerusalem really came to an end on 2 October, 1187, when the city opened its gates to Saladin (Yusuf ibn Ayyub, Salah-ed-din, Emir of Egypt, 1169-93); although fragments of the Latin kingdom in Palestine lasted into another century
Jesuits, The - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order
Jesuit Apologetic - The accusations brought against the Society have been exceptional for their frequency and fierceness
Jesuits, Distinguished - A list without details of the Jesuits. Does include links to articles when there is one about the person
Jesuits, History of the (pre-1750) - Includes details of activities in various countries
Jesuits, Suppression of the (1750-1773) - The most difficult part of the history of the Society
Jesuits, History of the (1814-1912) - Pius VII had resolved to restore the Society during his captivity in France; and after his return to Rome he did so with little delay
Jesuit's Bark - On account of its alkaloids, is the most celebrated specific remedy for all forms of malaria
Jesus Christ - The incarnate Son of God and the redeemer of the human race
Jesus Christ, Character of - The surpassing eminence of the character of Jesus has been acknowledged by men of the most varied type
Jesus Christ, Chronology of the Life of - Includes absolute and relative chronologies
Jesus Christ, Devotion to the Heart of - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart
Jesus Christ, Early Historical Documents on - Divided into three classes: pagan sources, Jewish sources, and Christian sources
Jesus Christ, Genealogy of - Offers the genealogy according to Saint Matthew and Saint Luke
Jesus Christ, Holy Name of - Reverence for the name of Jesus is not optional for believers. Article highlights the Scriptural reasons, and describes some customary ways of showing reverence
Jesus Christ, Knowledge of - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ
Jesus Christ, Origin of the Name of - Article examines the name Jesus and Christ separately
Jesus Christ, Resurrection of - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Jesus, The Society of - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order
Jewish Calendar - Details include days, weeks, months, years, and eras
Jewish Tribe - The earlier Hebrew term rendered in English versions by the word 'tribe' is shebet, while the term matteh, prevails in the post-exilic writings
Jews (as a Religion) - Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians
Jews, History of the - Of the two terms, Jews and Judaism, the former denotes usually the Israelites or descendants of Jacob (Israel) in contrast to Gentile races; the latter, the creed and worship of the Jews in contrast to Christianity and others
Jezabel - Wife of Achab, King of Israel
Joachim, Saint - According to apocryphal literature, the father of Mary
Joachim of Flora - Article on this Cistercian abbot, mystic, regarded as a prophet, d. 1202
Joan, Popess - The fable about a female pope, who afterwards bore the name of Johanna (Joan), is first noticed in the middle of the thirteenth century
Joan of Arc, Saint - Her brief life, her trial and death, swift rehabilitation, and her beatification in 1909
Job - One of the books of the Old Testament, and the chief personage in it
Joel - Profile of the Old Testament prophet and analysis of the book bearing his name
Jogues, Saint Isaac - French Jesuit missionary to Canada, martyred in 1646
John I, Pope Saint - A Tuscan, was warmly received in Constantinople, but upon his return to Rome, was imprisoned by King Theodoric. Pope John died in prison in 526
John II, Pope - A Roman and the son of Projectus; if not born in the second region (Coelimontium) he had at least been a priest of St. Clement's Basilica
John III, Pope - A Roman surnamed Catelinus, d. 13 July, 574
John IV, Pope - A native of Dalmatia, and the son of the scholasticus (advocate) Venantius
John V, Pope - A Syrian whose father was one Cyriacus; when he was born is not known; d. 2 August, 686
John VI, Pope - A Greek, the date of whose birth is unknown; d. 11 January, 705
John VII, Pope - Reigned 705-707
John VIII, Pope - Reigned 872-82
John IX, Pope - Reigned 898-900
John X, Pope - Born at Tossignano, Romagna; enthroned, 914; died at Rome, 928
John XI, Pope - Reigned 931-935
John XII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; reigned 955-64
John XIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; enthroned on 1 Oct., 965; d. 6 Sept., 972
John XIV, Pope - After the death of Benedict VII, Bishop Peter Campanora of Pavia, earlier imperial chancellor of Italy, was elected pope with the consent of Emperor Otto II, and took the name of John
John XV (XVI), Pope - Enthroned 985; d. April, 996
John XVI (XVII) - Antipope 997-998; d. probably in 1013
John XVII (XVIII), Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 6 Nov., 1003
John XVIII (XIX), Pope - Successor of John XVII, consecrated Christmas, 1003; d. June, 1009
John XIX (XX), Pope - Enthroned in 1024; d. 1032
John XXI (XX), Pope - Born at Lisbon between 1210 and 1220; enthroned, 1276; died at Viterbo, 20 May, 1277
John XXII, Pope - Born at Cahors in 1249; enthroned, 5 September, 1316; died at Avignon, 4 December, 1334
John XXIII - Antipope (1370-1419)
John, Epistles of - Three canonical books of the New Testament written by the Apostle St. John
John, Gospel of - According to the traditional order, the Gospel of St. John occupies the last place among the four canonical Gospels
John and Paul, Saints - Roman martyrs, c. 362
John Baptist de la Salle, Saint - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers
John Berchmans, Saint - Biography of this Jesuit, always pious, who died in 1621 at the age of 22
John Bosco, Saint - Commonly called Don Bosco or John Bosco. Founder of the Salesians, d. 1888
John Capistran, Saint - Lawyer, governor, ambassador, became a Franciscan priest and a renowned preacher, died in 1456
John Chrysostom, Saint - Long biographical article on this bishop and Doctor of the Church
John Damascene, Saint - Lengthy biographical article on the last of the Greek Fathers
John Fisher, Saint - Cardinal, Bishop of Rochester, martyr, d. 1535
John Francis Regis, Saint - Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640
John Nepomucene, Saint - Biography of the vicar general of the Archdiocese of Prague, who was tortured and then thrown into the Moldau and drowned, by order of King Wenceslaus IV, in 1393
John of God, Saint - Portuguese shepherd, soldier, bookseller, finally found his niche caring for the health of the poor in Granada, became de facto founder of a religious order, d. 1550
John of the Cross, Saint - Article on the life and teaching of this Discalced Carmelite associated with St. Teresa of Avila. Mystic, Doctor of the Church, d. 1591
John the Baptist, Saint - Lengthy article on the Precursor
John the Evangelist, Saint - Brother of James and son of Zebedee
John the Faster - Patriarch of Constantinople (John IV, 582-595), famous chiefly through his assumption of the title 'ecumenical patriarch'; d. 2 September, 595
Joliet, Louis - A discoverer and the son of a wagon-maker, was born at Quebec, Canada, on 21 September 1645; d. in Canada, May 1700
Jonah - The fifth of the Minor Prophets. Article takes a look at the Book of Jonah
Jonas - The fifth of the Minor Prophets. Article takes a look at the Book of Jonah
Jordan, The - Formed at a point about five and a half miles below Banias, by the junction of three streams, the Jordan enters Lake Huleh about nine and a third miles lower down
Josaphat and Barlaam - Main characters of a seventh-century Christian legend. Barlaam, a hermit, converted the prince Josaphat to Christianity, despite the efforts of Josaphat's father Abenner to prevent such a thing. Although Barlaam and Josaphat are included in the Roman Martyrology and in the Greek calendar, the story is actually a Christianized version of a legend about Buddha
Josaphat Kuncevyc, Saint - Lithuanian-born Basilian monk and Ruthenian Rite archbishop of Polotsk, writer. He loved to make profound bows while reciting the Jesus Prayer. Martyred in 1623
Joseph, Saint - Information on the entire life of St. Joseph
Joseph - The eleventh son of Jacob, the firstborn of Rachel, and the immediate ancestor of the tribes of Manasses and Ephraim
Joseph Calasanctius, Saint - Priest, founder of the Piarists, d. 1648
Joseph of Arimathea - All that is known for certain concerning him is derived from the canonical Gospels
Joseph of Cupertino, Saint - Mystic from a very young age, priest, d. 1663. Biographical article
Joseph II - German Emperor (reigned 1765-90), of the House of Hapsburg-Lorraine, son and successor of Maria Theresa and Francis I
Joseph, Sisters of Saint - Founded at Le Puy, in Velay, France, by the Rev. Jean-Paul Medaille of the Society of Jesus
Josephus, Flavius - Jewish historian, born A.D. 37, at Jerusalem; died about 101
Joshua - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books
Josias - A pious King of Juda (639-608 B.C.), who ascended the throne when he was only eight years of age. He was the son of Amon and the grandson of Manasses
Josue - The name of eight persons in the Old Testament, and of one of the Sacred Books
Jovianus, Flavius Claudius - Roman Emperor, 363-4
Jubilee, Holy Year of - Background information relating to the Jubilee
Jubilee, Year of (Hebrew) - According to the Pentateuchal legislation contained in Leviticus, a Jubilee year is the year that follows immediately seven successive Sabbatic years (the Sabbatic year being the seventh year of a seven-year cycle)
Jubilees, Book of - An apocryphal writing, so called from the fact that the narratives and stories contained in it are arranged throughout in a fanciful chronological system of jubilee-periods of forty-nine years each; each event is recorded as having taken place in such a week of such a month of such a Jubilee year
Juda - The name of one of the Patriarchs, the name of the tribe reputed to be descended from him, the name of the territory occupied by the same, and also the name of several persons mentioned in the Old Testament
Judaism - Judaism designates the religious communion which survived the destruction of the Jewish nation by the Assyrians and the Babylonians
Judaizers - A party of Jewish Christians in the Early Church, who either held that circumcision and the observance of the Mosaic Law were necessary for salvation and in consequence wished to impose them on the Gentile converts, or who at least considered them as still obligatory on the Jewish Christians
Judas Iscariot - The Apostle who betrayed Jesus
Judas Machabeus - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4)
Jude, Epistle of Saint - One of the so-called antilegomena; but, although its canonicity has been questioned in several Churches, its genuineness has never been denied
Judea - It designates the part of Palestine adjacent to Jerusalem and inhabited by the Jewish community after their return from captivity
Judges, The Book of - The seventh book of the Old Testament, second of the Early Prophets of the Hebrew canon
Judgment, Divine - Divine judgment (judicium divinum), as an immanent act of God, denotes the action of God's retributive justice by which the destiny of rational creatures is decided according to their merits and demerits
Judgment, General - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine
Judgment, Last - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine
Judgment, Particular - The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God
Judith, Book of - The book exists in distinct Greek and Latin versions, of which the former contains at least eighty-four verses more than the later
Juliana, Saint - Martyred in the Diocletian persecution. The oldest notice says that she died near Naples; the notion that she lived in Nicomedia is strictly legendary
Juliana Falconieri, Saint - Niece of St. Alexis Falconieri. She founded the Servite Third Order, and died in 1341
Juliana of Norwich - Biographical article on this fourteenth-century English anchoress, mystic, author. By Edmund Gardner
Julian the Apostate - Roman emperor 361-63, b. at Constantinople in 331, d. 26 June, 363, son of Julius Constantius, the half-brother of Constantine the Great
Julia Billiart, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816
Julie Billiart, Saint - Biographical article on the founder of the Sisters of Notre Dame de Namur. She died in 1816
Julius I, Pope Saint - A Roman, anti-Arian, supporter of St. Athanasius. Julius died in 352
Julius II, Pope - Born on 5 December, 1443, at Albissola near Savona; crowned on 28 November, 1503; died at Rome, in the night of 20-21 February, 1513
Julius III, Pope - Born at Rome, 10 September, 1487; died there, 23 March, 1555
Julius Africanus - The father of Christian chronography
Junípero Serra - Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784
Jurisdiction, Ecclesiastical - The right to guide and rule the Church of God
Justice - In its ordinary and proper sense, signifiies the most important of the cardinal virtues
Justification - A biblio-ecclesiastical term; which denotes the transforming of the sinner from the state of unrighteousness to the state of holiness and sonship of God
Justinian I - Roman Emperor (527-65)
Justin Martyr, Saint - Lengthy article on the life and teachings of the apologist

K

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for K or use the search box at the top of this page.

Kabbala - It primarily signifies reception, and, secondarily, a doctrine received by oral tradition
Kadlubek, Blessed Vincent - Bishop of Cracow, resigned his office and became the first Pole to join the Cistercians. He died in 1223
Kager, Johann Matthias - German historical painter, born at Munich, 1566; died at Augsburg, 1634
Kaiserchronik - A German epic poem of the twelfth century
Kalands Brethren - The name given to religious and charitable associations of priests and laymen especially numerous in Northern and Central Germany, which held regular meetings for religious edification and instruction, and also to encourage works of charity and prayers for the dead
Kalcker, Jan Stephanus van - Flemish painter, native of the Duchy of Cleves; b. between 1499 and 1510; d. at Naples, 1546
Kalispel Indians - Popularly known under the French name of Pend d'Oreilles, 'ear pendants', an important tribe of Salishan stock originally residing about Pend d Oreille lake and river, in northern Idaho and northeast Washington
Kalocsa-Bacs, Archdiocese of - This archdiocese embraces within its territories an archdiocese and a diocese founded by St. Stephen of Hungary in 1010
Kant, Philosophy of - A detailed evaluation by William Turner
Kaskaskia Indians - Formerly chief tribe of the confederacy of Illinois Indians
Kauffmann, Angelica - Artist's biography with bibliography
Kaunitz, Wenzel Anton - An Austrian prince and statesman, born at Vienna 2 February, 1711; died there 27 June, 1794
Kateri Tekakwitha, Blessed - Biographical article on the 'Lily of the Mohawks,' who died in 1680. Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha or Takwita
Keating, Geoffrey - Irish theologian, historian, and poet, b. at Burgess in the parish of Tubbrid, Co. Tipperary, about 1569; d. at Tubbrid about 1644
Keller, Jacob - Controversialist, born at Sackingen, Baden, Germany, in 1568; died at Munich, Bavaria, 23 February, 1631
Kells, Book of - An Irish manuscript containing the Four Gospels, a fragment of Hebrew names, and the Eusebian canons, known also as the 'Book of Columba'
Kells, School of - Kells (in Gaelic Cenannus) was the chief of the Irish Columban monasteries
Kemble, Ven. John - Biography of the priest and martyr, who died in 1679
Kemp, John - Cardinal, Archbishop of Canterbury, Chancellor of England (1380-1454)
Kenites - A tribe or family often mentioned in the Old Testament, personified as Qayin from which the nomen gentilicium Qeni is derived
Kennedy, James - Bishop of St. Andrews, Scotland. Born about 1406; died 10 May, 1466
Kenneth, Saint - Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600
Kenny, Saint - Irish priest, monastic founder, missionary to Scotland, d. 600
Kenosis - A term derived from the discussion as to the real meaning of Phil. 2:6
Kenraghty - Irish priest, d. 30 April, 1585, at Clonmel, Co. Tipperary
Kenrick, Francis Patrick and Peter Richard - Archbishops of Baltimore, Maryland, and of St. Louis, Missouri
Kent, Nun of - Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the 'Nun of Kent'
Kentigern, Saint - Also known as Mungo. First bishop of Glasgow, died in 603. Biography
Kentucky - A state situated between the parallels of latitude 36°30' and 39°6' N., and between the meridians 82° and 89°38' W
Kerssenbroch, Hermann von - A teacher and historian, b. at Monchshof, near Barntrup (Lippe), about 1520; d. at Osnabruck, 5 July, 1585
Kessels, Matthias - Sculptor, b. at Maastricht, 1784; d. at Rome, 3 March, 1836
Ketteler, Wilhelm Emmanuel, Baron von - Bishop of Mainz, b. at Muenster, in Westphalia, 25 Dec., 1811; d. at Burghausen, 13 July, 1877
Kevin of Glendalough, Saint - Abbot of Glendalough, d. 618
Keys, Power of the - The expression 'power of the keys' is derived from Christ's words to St. Peter (in Matthew 16:19)
Kickapoo Indians - Apparently corrupted from a longer term signifying 'roamers', a tribe of Algonquian stock, closely related dialectically to the Sauk and Foxes, and living when first known in south central Wisconsin
Kieran, Saints - Of the many Irish saints of this name, the most famous is St. Kieran of Clonmacnoise. SS. Kieran of Seir-Kieran and Kieran of Disert-Kieran are fairly well-known. There is also a St. Kieran, patron of Clonsost, and a St. Kieran, son of Colga
Kildare, School of - Situated in Magh Liffe, or the Plain of the Liffey, came to be known as Cill-Dara, or the Church of the Oak, from the stately oak-tree so much loved by St. Brigid, who under its branches laid the foundations of what in process of time became a monastic city
Kilian, Saint - Missionary, bishop of Wuerzburg, martyred with his companions Colman and Totnan in about 689
Kilwardby, Robert - Archbishop of Canterbury (d. 1279)
Kilwinning, Benedictine Abbey of - Located in Ayrshire, Scotland, in the town of the same name, where a church was said to have been founded early in the eighth century by St. Winning
Kingdom of God - In this expression the innermost teaching of the Old Testament is summed up, but it should be noted that the word kingdom means ruling as well; thus it signifies not so much the actual kingdom as the sway of the king
Kingisel - The name of two abbots who ruled Glastonbury in the seventh and eighth centuries respectively
Kings - The 'wise men from the East' who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2)
Kings, First and Second Books of - Known as the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version, in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions these are known as 1st and 2nd Samuel, with the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings
Kings, Third and Fourth Books of - The historical book called in the Hebrew Melakhim, i.e. Kings, is in the Vulgate, in imitation of the Septuagint, styled the Third and Fourth Book of Kings
Kings, Chronology of the - Offers a table with the kings from the Bible
Kingston - The Archdiocese of Kingston comprises the territory from the eastern line of Dundas County to the western boundary of Hastings County in the Province of Ontario, Canada
Kinloss - Cistercian abbey on the coast of Morayshire, Scotland, founded in 1150 or 1151 (authorities differ) by King David I, in gratitude, according to the popular legend, for having been guided into safety by a white dove when he had lost his way hunting in the adjacent forest
Kino, Eusebius - A famous Jesuit missionary of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; b. 10 August, 1644, in Welschtirol (Anauniensis); d. 15 March, 1711
Kiowa Indians - An important Plains tribe, constituting a distinct linguistic stock
Kirby, Blessed Luke - English priest, martyred in 1582. Article also has details on Bl. Laurence Richardson and St. Luke Kirby, his companions in martyrdom
Kircher, Athanasius - Celebrated for the versatility of his knowledge and particularly distinguished for his knowledge of the natural sciences, b. 2 May, 1601, at Geisa, a small town on the northern bank of the Upper Rhone (Buchonia); d. at Rome, 28 Nov., 1680
Kisfaludy - Born at Suemeg, Hungary, 27 Sept., 1772; died at Suemeg, 28 October, 1844
Kiss - Four times in the Epistles of St. Paul is met the injunction, used as a sort of formula of farewell, 'Salute one another in a holy kiss' (en philemati hagio), for which St. Peter (1 Pet., v, 14) substitutes 'in a kiss of love' (en philemati agapes)
Klesl, Melchior - A cardinal and Austrian statesman, b. at Vienna, 19 February, 1552; d. at Wiener-Neustadt, 18 September, 1630
Knabl, Joseph - A master of religious plastic art, b. at Fliess, Tyrol, in 1819; d. at Munich in 1881
Kneeling - To genuflect, to bend the knee
Knight, Venerable William - Put to death for the Faith at York, on 29 November, 1596; with him also suffered Venerables George Errington of Herst, William Gibson of Ripon, and William Abbot of Howden, in Yorkshire
Knighton, Henry - A fourteenth-century chronicler
Knighthood - Considered from three points of view: the military, the social, and the religious
Knights of Christ, Order of the - A military order which sprang out of the famous Order of the Temple
Knights of Columbus - Brief explanation and history of the organization
Knights of the Cross - A religious order famous in the history of Bohemia, and accustomed from the beginning to the use of arms, a custom which was confirmed in 1292 by an ambassador of Pope Nicholas IV
Knights of Malta - The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration
Knights Templars, The - The earliest founders of the military orders
Knowledge - Knowledge, being a primitive fact of consciousness, cannot, strictly speaking, be defined; but the direct and spontaneous consciousness of knowing may be made clearer by pointing out its essential and distinctive characteristics
Knowledge of Jesus Christ - 'Knowledge of Jesus Christ,' as used in this article, does not mean a summary of what we know about Jesus Christ, but a survey of the intellectual endowment of Christ
Knownothingism - Article on this 1850s United States anti-immigrant movement
Knox, John - Scotch Protestant leader, b. at Haddington, Scotland, between 1505 and 1515; d. at Edinburgh, 24 November, 1572
Koberger, Anthony - German printer, publisher, and bookseller, b. about 1445; d. at Nuremberg, 3 October, 1513
Kochanowski, Jan - Born at Sycyna, 1530, died at Lublin, 22 August, 1584
Kochowski, Vespasian - Born at Sandomir?, 1633; died at Krakow, 1699. He received his education at the Jesuit College, Sandomir, served in the army, and then spent the rest of his life on his estate
Kögler, Ignaz - Jesuit missionary to China (1680-1746)
Kohlmann, Anthony - Educator and missionary (1771-1836)
Konarski, Stanislaus - Born in 1700; died in 1773. This great reformer of Polish schools was a Piarist who, during a visit to Rome after his ordination, received there the first idea of his life's mission
Königshofen, Jacob - Medieval chronicler (1346-1420)
Konrad ("der Pfaffe") - A German epic poet of the twelfth century
Konrad of Lichtenau - Medieval German chronicler (d. 1240)
Konrad of Megenberg - Scholar and writer, b. probably at Mainberg, near Schweinfurt, Bavaria, 2 February, 1309; d. at Ratisbon, 11 April, 1374
Konrad of Würzburg - A Middle High German poet, b. about 1230; d. at Basle, 1287
Konsag, Ferdinand - A German missionary of the eighteenth century, b. 2 December, 1703, at Warasdin, Croatia; d. 10 September, 1758
Koran, The - The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God
Kosciuszko, Tadeusz - Polish patriot and soldier, b. near Novogrudok, Lithuania, Poland, 12 February, 1752; d. at Solothurn, Switzerland, 15 October, 1817
Kostka, Saint Stanislas - Polish Jesuit, died in 1568 at the age of 17, less than a year after entering the Society
Krafft, Adam - Sculptor, b. about 1440 at Nuremberg; d. Jan., 1509 at Schwabach
Krämer, John - Born about the end of the fourteenth century, he must have died between 1437 and 1440, as a manuscript of the Carthusian monastery of Memmingen speaks of the gift made to it by Kraemer in 1437, and the general chapter of the Carthusian Order held in 1440 mentions his death
Krasicki, Ignatius - Born in 1735; died at Berlin, 1801. He took orders in early youth, and soon after became a canon, travelled abroad, preached the coronation sermon for King Stanislaus Poniatowski, by whose favour he shortly got a bishopric in what was soon to become Prussian Poland
Kremsmünster - A Benedictine abbey in Austria, on the little river Krems, about twenty miles south of Linz, founded A.D. 777 by Tassilo II Duke of Bavaria, who richly endowed it, as did subsequently Charlemagne and his successors
Kromer, Martin - A distinguished Polish bishop and historian; b. at Biecz in Galicia in 1512; d. at Heilsberg, Ermland (now East Prussia), on 23 March, 1589
Krzycki, Andrew - A typical humanistic poet, a most supple courtier for whom poetry was to be a source of renown and profit, Krzycki was well-read in Latin poetry and knew the language to perfection. Date of birth uncertain; d. in 1535
Kulturkampf - The name given to the political struggle for the rights and self-government of the Catholic Church, carried out chiefly in Prussia and afterwards in Baden, Hesse, and Bavaria
Kuncevyc, Saint Josaphat - Lithuanian-born Basilian monk and Ruthenian Rite archbishop of Polotsk, writer. He loved to make profound bows while reciting the Jesus Prayer. Martyred in 1623
Kutenai Indians - An important tribe of south-eastern British Columbia and the adjacent portions of Montana and Idaho
Kyrie Eleison - Greek for 'Lord have mercy'; the Latin transliteration supposes a pronunciation as in Modern Greek, is a very old, even pre-Christian, expression used constantly in all Christian liturgies

L

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La Salette - Located in the commune and parish of La Salette-Fallavaux, Canton of Corps, Department of Isere, and Diocese of Grenoble
La Salle, John Baptist de, Saint - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers
La Salle, René-Robert-Cavelier, Sieur de - Explorer, born at Rouen, 1643; died in Texas, 1687
Labarum (Chi-Rho) - The name by which the military standard adopted by Constantine the Great after his celebrated vision (Lactantius, 'De mortibus persecutorum', 44), was known in antiquity
Labyrinth - A complicated arrangement of paths and passages; or a place, usually subterraneous, full of windings, corridors, rooms, etc., so intricately arranged as to render the getting out of it a very difficult matter
Lace - The two earliest known specimens of lace-worked linen albs are that of St. Francis, preserved at St. Clare's convent, Assisi, and the alb of Pope Boniface VIII, now in the treasury of the Sistine Chapel
Lacordaire, Jean-Baptiste-Henri-Dominique - Dominican orator (1802-1861)
Lactantius, Lucius Cæcilius Firmianus - Fourth-century Christian apologist
Laennec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe - Born at Quimper, in Brittany, France, 17 February, 1781; died at Kerlouanec, 13 August, 1826, a French physician, discoverer of auscultation, and father of modern knowledge of pulmonary diseases
Laetare Sunday - The fourth, or middle, Sunday of Lent, so called from the first words of the Introit at Mass
Lahore - Diocese in northern India, part of the ecclesiastical Province of Agra
Laicization - The term laity signifies the aggregation of those Christians who do not form part of the clergy. Consequently the word lay does not strictly connote any idea of hostility towards the clergy or the Church much less towards religion. Laicization, therefore, considered etymologically, simply means the reducing of persons or things having an ecclesiastical character to a lay condition
Laity - The body of the faithful, outside of the ranks of the clergy
Lamb, Paschal - A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration
Lamb (in Early Christian Symbolism) - One of the few Christian symbols dating from the first century is that of the Good Shepherd carrying on His shoulders a lamb or a sheep, with two other sheep at his side
Lamp, Altar - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Lance, The Holy - In the Gospel of St. John (xix, 34), that, after our Saviour's death, 'one of the soldiers with a spear [lancea] opened his side and immediately there came out blood and water'
Lando, Pope - Reigned 913-914
Lantern - In Italian or modern architecture, a small structure on the top of a dome, for the purpose of admitting light, for promoting ventilation, and for ornament
Laodicea - A titular see, of Asia Minor, metropolis of Phrygia Pacatiana, said to have been originally called Diospolis and Rhoas; Antiochus II colonized it between 261 and 246 B.C., and gave it the name of his wife, Laodice
Laplace, Pierre-Simon - Mathematician and astronomer (1749-1827)
Lapsi - The regular designation in the third century for Christians who relapsed into heathenism, especially for those who during the persecutions displayed weakness in the face of torture, and denied the Faith by sacrificing to the heathen gods or by any other acts
Last Judgment, The - To it the prophets of the Old Testament refer when they speak of the 'Day of the Lord' (Joel 2:31; Ezekiel 13:5; Isaiah 2:12), in which the nations will be summoned to judgment. In the New Testament the second Parusia, or coming of Christ as Judge of the world, is an oft-repeated doctrine
Last Supper, The - The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday
Lateran, Saint John - This is the oldest, and ranks first among the four great 'patriarchal' basilicas of Rome
Lateran Council, First - It put a stop to the arbitrary conferring of ecclesiastical benefices by laymen, reestablished freedom of episcopal and abbatial elections, separated spiritual from temporal affairs, and ratified the principle that spiritual authority can emanate only from the Church; lastly it tacitly abolished the exorbitant claim of the emperors to interfere in papal elections
Lateran Council, Second - To efface the last vestiges of the schism, to condemn various errors and reform abuses among clergy and people Innocent, in the month of April, 1139, convoked, at the Lateran, the tenth ecumenical council
Lateran Council, Third - In September, 1178, the pope in agreement with an article of the Peace of Venice, convoked an ecumenical council at the Lateran for Lent of the following year and, with that object, sent legates to different countries
Lateran Council, Fourth - From the commencement of his reign Innocent III had purposed to assemble an ecumenical council, but only towards the end of his pontificate could he realize this project, by the Bull of 19 April, 1213. The assembly was to take place in November, 1215
Lateran Council, Fifth - Convoked, by the Bull of 18 July, 1511, to assemble 19 April, 1512, in the church of St. John Lateran
Latin, Ecclesiastical - The Latin in the official textbooks of the Church (the Bible and the Liturgy), as well as in the works of those Christian writers of the West who have undertaken to expound or defend Christian beliefs
Latin Church - The Latin Church is simply that vast portion of the Catholic body which obeys the Latin patriarch, which submits to the pope, not only in papal, but also in patriarchal matters
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem - Founded as a result of the First Crusade, in 1099. Destroyed a first time by Saladin in 1187, it was re-established around Saint-Jean d'Acre and maintained until the capture of that city in 1291
Latin Literature in Christianity (Before the Sixth Century) - The Latin language was not at first the literary and official organ of the Christian Church in the West. The Gospel was announced by preachers whose language was Greek, and these continued to use Greek, if not in their discourses, at least in their most important acts
Latria - In classical Greek originally meant 'the state of a hired servant' (Aesch., 'Prom.', 966), and so service generally. It is used especially for Divine service (Plato, 'Apol.', 23 B). In Christian literature it came to have a technical sense for the supreme honour due to His servants, the angels and saints
Latrocinium - The Acts of the first session of this synod were read at the Council of Chalcedon, 451, and have thus been preserved. The remainder of the Acts are known only through a Syriac translation by a Monophysite monk, published from the British Museum MS. Addit. 14,530, written in the year 535
Latter-Day Saints, The Church of Jesus Christ of - Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. This religious body had its origin during the early part of the nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, the founder and first president of the sect, was the son of a Vermont farmer, and was born in Sharon township, Windsor County, in that state, on 23 December, 1805
Lauds - Article on the canonical hour once known as Matins, then as Lauds, now as Morning Prayer. One of the two principal hours
Laurence O'Toole, Saint - Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180
Lavabo - The first word of that portion of Psalm 25 said by the celebrant at Mass while he washes his hands after the Offertory, from which word the whole ceremony is named
La Valette, Jean Parisot de - Forty-eighth Grand Master of the Order of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem; b. in 1494; d. in Malta, 21 Aug., 1568
Lavoisier, Antoine-Laurent - Chemist, philosopher, economist (1743-1794)
Law - By law in the widest sense is understood that exact guide, rule, or authoritative standard by which a being is moved to action or held back from it
Law, Canon - Canon law is the body of laws and regulations made by or adopted by ecclesiastical authority, for the government of the Christian organization and its members
Law, Civil (Influence of the Church on) - Christianity is essentially an ethical religion; and, although its moral principles were meant directly for the elevation of the individual, still they could not fail to exercise a powerful influence on such a public institution as law, the crystallized rule of human conduct
Law, Common - The term is of English origin and is used to describe the juridical principles and general rules regulating the possession, use and inheritance of property and the conduct of individuals, the origin of which is not definitely known, which have been observed since a remote period of antiquity, and which are based upon immemorial usages and the decisions of the law courts as distinct from the lex scripta; the latter consisting of imperial or kingly edicts or express acts of legislation
Law, Divine (Moral Aspect of) - That which is enacted by God and made known to man through revelation
Law, International - Defined to be 'the rules which determine the conduct of the general body of civilized states in their dealings with each other' (American and English Encycl. of Law)
Law, Mosaic - The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws, and decisions comprised in the last four books of the Pentateuch, and ascribed by Christian and Hebrew tradition to Moses
Law, Natural - In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, meaning the order which governs the activities of the material universe. Among the Roman jurists natural law designated those instincts and emotions common to man and the lower animals, such as the instinct of self-preservation and love of offspring
Law, Roman - This subject is briefly treated under the two heads of; I. Principles; II. History
Lawrence, Saint - Deacon, martyr, d. 258
Lawrence, Saint - Successor of St. Augustine of Canterbury as archbishop of that see, and died in 619
Lawrence Justinian, Saint - Bishop and first Patriarch of Venice. He died in 1456
Lawrence of Brindisi, Saint - An Italian Capuchin with a talent for languages, much in demand as a preacher, was chaplain of the Imperial army. Doctor of the Church. He died in 1619
Lawrence O'Toole, Saint - Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180
Laws, Penal - Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries since the Reformation.
Lay Brothers - Religious occupied solely with manual labour and with the secular affairs of a monastery or friary
Lazarites - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Lazarus - The name of two persons in the N.T.; a character in one of Christ's parables, and the brother of Martha and Mary of Bethania
Lazarus of Bethany, Saint - Reputed first Bishop of Marseilles, died in the second half of the first century
Lazarus of Jerusalem, Order of Saint - The military order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem originated in a leper hospital founded in the twelfth century by the crusaders of the Latin Kingdom
Lectern - Support for a book, reading-desk, or bookstand, a solid and permanent structure upon which the Sacred Books, which were generally large and heavy, were placed when used by the ministers of the altar in liturgical functions
Lectionary - A term of somewhat vague significance, used with a good deal of latitude by liturgical writers
Lector - A lector (reader) in the West is a clerk having the second of the four minor orders. In all Eastern Churches also, readers are ordained to a minor order preparatory to the diaconate
Lefèvre d'Etaples, Jacques - A French philosopher, biblical and patristic scholar; b. at Etaples in Picardy, about 1455; d. at Nerac, 1536
Legacies - In its most restricted sense, by a pious legacy or bequest (legatum pium) is understood, the assigning, by a last will, of a particular thing forming part of an estate, to a church or an ecclesiastical institution
Legate - In its broad signification, means that person who is sent by another for some representative office. In the ecclesiastical sense it means one whom the pope sends to sovereigns or governments or only to the members of the episcopate and faithful of a country, as his representative, to treat of church matters or even on a mission of honour
Legends, Literary or Profane - In the period of national origins history and legend are inextricably mingled. In the course of oral transmission historic narrative necessarily becomes more or less legendary
Legends of the Saints - The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments
Le Gras, Venerable Louise de Marillac - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660
Leibniz, System of - A thorough overview of the life and views of Leibniz
Lemberg - Seat of a Latin, a Uniat Ruthenian, and a Uniat Armenian archbishopric
L'Enfant, Pierre-Charles - French engineer (1755-1833)
Lent - An article on the origins of Lenten fasting
Lentulus, Publius - A fictitious person, said to have been Governor of Judea before Pontius
Leo I (the Great), Pope - Article on his pontificate, in Christian antiquity second only to that of Gregory the Great in importance. Leo died in 461
Leo II, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this pontiff, who died in 683
Leo III, Pope Saint - Biography of this pope, who died in 816
Leo IV, Pope - Biographical article on this Roman, who died in 855
Leo V, Pope - Very little is known of him. No certainty either as to when he was elected or as to exactly how long he reigned
Leo VI, Pope - The exact dates of the election and death of Leo VI are uncertain, but it is clear that he was pope during the latter half of 928
Leo VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. 13 July, 939. A Roman and priest of St. Sixtus, and probably a Benedictine monk, he was elected pope 3 January, 936
Leo VIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; d. between 20 February and 13 April, 965
Leo IX, Pope - Hagiographical article on this reformer pope, who died in 1054
Leo X, Pope - Reigned 1513-1521
Leo XI, Pope - Reigned 1605
Leo XII, Pope - Born at the Castello della Genga in the territory of Spoleto, 22 August, 1760; died in Rome, 10 February, 1829
Leo XIII, Pope - Lengthy biographical article on the author of 'Rerum novarum.'
Leonard of Limousin, Saint - According to eleventh-century legend, he was a sixth-century Frankish nobleman
Leonardo da Vinci - Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and scholar (1452-1519)
Lepanto - Italian name for Naupactos (Naupactus) a titular metropolitan see of ancient Epirus
Leprosy - A chronic infectious disease characterized by the formation of growths in the skin, mucous membranes, peripheral nerves, bones, and internal viscera, producing various deformities and mutilations of the human body, and usually terminating in death
Le Puy - Diocese in France
Lesbi - A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Setif, in Algeria
Lesbi - A titular see in Mauretania Sitifensis, suffragan of Sitifis, or Setif, in Algeria
Levites - The subordinate ministers appointed in the Mosaic Law for the service of the Tabernacle and of the Temple
Leviticus - The third book of the Pentateuch, so called because it treats of the offices, ministries, rites, and ceremonies of the priests and Levites
Libel - A malicious publication by writing, printing, picture, effigy, sign, or otherwise than by mere speech, which exposes any living person, or the memory of any person deceased, to hatred, contempt, ridicule, or obloquy, or which causes or tends to cause any person to be ashamed or avoided, or which has a tendency to injure any person, corporation, or association of persons, in his, her, or its business or occupation
Liber Pontificalis - A history of the popes beginning with St. Peter and continued down to the fifteenth century, in the form of biographies
Liberal Arts, The Seven - Chiefly used during the Middle Ages. Doesn't mean arts as the word is understood today, but those branches of knowledge which were taught in the schools of that time
Liberalism - A free way of thinking and acting in private and public life
Liberius, Pope - Reigned 352-366
Libraries - Collections of books accumulated and made accessible for public or private use
Lidwina, Saint - Biography of this Dutch woman who died in 1433
Liebermann, Bruno Franz Leopold - Catholic theologian, b., at Molsheim in Alsace 12 Oct., 1759; 4. at Strasburg, 11 Nov., 1844
Life - The enigma of life is still one of the two or three most difficult problems that face both scientist and philosopher
Lights - Article concerned with the general aspects and in particular with the charge so often levelled against Catholicism of adopting wholesale the ceremonial practices of the pagan world
Liguori, Saint Alphonsus - Long biographical article on the founder of the Redemptorists and devotional writer
Lilius, Aloisius - Principal author of the Gregorian Calendar, was a native of Cirò or Zirò in Calabria
Limbo - A word of Teutonic derivation, meaning literally 'hem' or 'border,' as of a garment, or anything joined on
Lindisfarne, Ancient Diocese and Monastery of - The island of Lindisfarne lies some two miles off the Northumberland coast, nine and one-half miles southeast of the border-town of Berwick
Line, Saint Anne - A convert to Catholicism, hanged in 1601 for the (unproven) crime of harboring a priest. She is one of the Forty Martyrs of England and Wales
Linens, Altar - The corporal, pall, purificator, and finger towels
Linus, Pope Saint - Reigned about A.D. 64 or 67 to 76 or 79
Lippi, Filippo - Biography of the Italian painter (1406-1469)
Lisbon - Patriarchate of Lisbon (Lisbonensis)
Litany - A form of responsive prayer, used in public liturgical services and private devotions
Litany of Loreto - Long article examines the somewhat murky history of the Litany of Loreto. Also information on Marian litanies in general
Litany of the Saints - The model of all other litanies, of great antiquity
Literature, English - Latin, French, Italian, Greek, and Spanish literatures are a few of the influences
Little Flowers of St. Francis of Assissi - Little Flowers of Francis of Assisi, the name given to a classic collection of popular legends about the life of St. Francis of Assisi and his early companions as they appeared to the Italian people at the beginning of the fourteenth century
Little Office of Our Lady - Historical article on the Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary, modeled on the Divine Office
Liturgical Books - All the books, published by the authority of any church, that contain the text and directions for her official (liturgical) services
Liturgical Chant - A chant, if its style, composition, and execution prove it suitable for liturgical use, may properly be called liturgical chant
Liturgy - A Greek composite word meaning originally a public duty, a service to the state undertaken by a citizen
Liturgy of the Hours - Brief essay on the historical development of the Liturgy of the Hours
Liverpool - One of the thirteen dioceses into which Pius IX divided Catholic England, 29 September, 1850, when he re-established the Catholic hierarchy
Loaves of Proposition - Heb. 'bread of the faces', i.e. 'bread of the presence (of Yahweh)' (Ex., xxxv, 13; xxxix, 35, etc.), also called 'holy bread'
Logic - A historical survey from Indian and Pre-Aristotelian philosophy to the Logic of John Stuart Mill
Logos, The - The word Logos is the term by which Christian theology in the Greek language designates the Word of God, or Second Person of the Blessed Trinity
Lollards - The name given to the followers of John Wyclif, an heretical body numerous in England in the latter part of the fourteenth and the first half of the fifteenth century
Lombard, Peter - Biobibliographical essay on the Master of the Sentences
Lombardy - A word derived from Longobardia and used during the Middle Ages to designate the country ruled over by the Longobards, which varied in extent with the varying fortunes of that race in Italy
London (England) - The capital of England and chief city of the British Empire, is situated about fifty miles from the mouth of the Thames
Longstreet, James - Soldier and Catholic convert. Born 8 January, 1821, at Edgefield, South Carolina, U.S.A.; died at Gainesville, Georgia, 2 January, 1904
Lord's Prayer - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster
Lorenzo da Brindisi, Saint - An Italian Capuchin with a talent for languages, much in demand as a preacher, was chaplain of the Imperial army. Doctor of the Church. He died in 1619
Loreto, Holy House of - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy
Loreto, Litany of - Long article examines the somewhat murky history of the Litany of Loreto. Also information on Marian litanies in general
Lorraine - By the Treaty of Verdun in 843, the empire of Charlemagne was divided in three parts: Ludwig the German received Eastern Franconia; Charles the Bald, Western Franconia; and Lothair I, the strip of land lying between the two and reaching from the North Sea to the Rhone, with Italy in addition. After the death of Lothair I, in 855, Italy passed to his son Lothair II, who gave his name to the district henceforth known as Lotharii Regnum - Lotharingen, Lothringen, or Lorraine
Lot - Nephew of Abraham
Lottery - A lottery is one of the aleatory contracts and is commonly defined as a distribution of prizes by lot or by chance
Louis IX, Saint - Biographical article on St. Louis, King of France, d. 1270
Louis XIV - King of France, b. at Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 16 September, 1638; d. at Versailles, 1 September, 1715; was the son of Louis XIII and Anne of Austria, and became king, upon the death of his father, 14 May 1643
Louisiana - Includes history, religious information, and statistics
Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort, Saint - Missionary to Brittany, d. 1716
Louis of Toulouse, Saint - Bishop, d. 1297
Louise de Marillac Le Gras, Venerable - Founder of the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, d. 1660
Louisville, Diocese of - Comprises that part of Kentucky west of the Kentucky River and western borders of Carroll, Owen, Franklin, Woodford, Jessamine, Garrard, Rockcastle, Laurel, and Whitley Counties
Lourdes, Notre-Dame de - The pilgrimage of Lourdes is founded on the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin to a poor, fourteen-year-old girl, Bernadette Soubiroux. The first apparition occurred 11 February, 1858
Louvain, University of - In order to restore the splendour of Louvain, capital of his Duchy of Brabant, John IV of the House of Burgundy petitioned the papal authority for the establishment of an educational institution called at the time studium generale. The Bull of Martin V, dated 9 December, 1425, was the result
Love, Theological Virtue of - The third and greatest of the Divine virtues enumerated by St. Paul (1 Cor., xiii, 13), usually called charity, defined: a divinely infused habit, inclining the human will to cherish God for his own sake above all things, and man for the sake of God
Low Church - The name given to one of the three parties or doctrinal tendencies that prevail in the Established Church of England and its daughter Churches, the correlatives being High Church and Broad Church
Lower Criticism - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Loyola, Saint Ignatius - Biography of the Spanish founder of the Jesuits, who died in 1556
Lucifer - The name Lucifer originally denotes the planet Venus, emphasizing its brilliance
Lucius I, Pope Saint - Biographical article on this pope, exiled for a time, who reigned less than one year, and died in 254
Lucius II, Pope - Born at Bologna, unknown date, died at Rome, 15 February, 1145
Lucius III, Pope - Died 1185. Innocent II created him Cardinal-Priest of Santa Prassede on 23 February, 1141, and afterwards sent him as legate to France
Lucy, Saint - Virgin and martyr, d. 303 in the Diocletian persecution
Luke, Gospel of Saint - An introduction to the book
Lully, Raymond - Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called 'Doctor Illuminatus.'
Lumen Christi - The versicle chanted by the deacon on Holy Saturday as he lights the triple candle
Luna, Pedro de - Antipope under the name of Benedict XIII, b. at Illueca, Aragon, 1328; d. at the Peniscola, near Valencia, Spain, either 29 Nov., 1422, or 23 May, 1423
Lust - The inordinate craving for, or indulgence of, the carnal pleasure which is experienced in the human organs of generation
Luther, Martin - Leader of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century in Germany; born at Eisleben, 10 November, 1483; died at Eisleben, 18 February, 1546
Lutheranism - The religious belief held by the oldest and in Europe the most numerous of the Protestant sects, founded by the Wittenberg reformer, Martin Luther
Luxemburg - The small remnant of the old duchy of this name and since 11 May, 1867, an independent neutral grand duchy, comprising 998 sq. miles of territory, lying principally between 49°27' and 50°12' N. lat., and 5°45' and 6°32' E. long
Lying - As defined by St. Thomas Aquinas, a statement at variance with the mind
Lyons, Archdiocese of - Comprises the Department of the Rhone (except the Canton of Villeurbanne, which belongs to the Diocese of Grenoble) and of the Loire
Lyons, First Council of - Innocent IV, threatened by Emperor Frederick II, arrived at Lyons 2 December, 1244, and early in 1245 summoned the bishops and princes to the council
Lyons, Second Council of - One of the most largely attended of conciliar assemblies, there being present five hundred bishops, sixty abbots, more than a thousand prelates or procurators

M

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Maccabee, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4)
Maccabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great
Maccabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees
Mace - A short, richly ornamented staff
Macedonians - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost
Machabees, The - A priestly family which under the leadership of Mathathias initiated the revolt against the tyranny of Antiochus IV Epiphanes, King of Syria, and after securing Jewish independence ruled the commonwealth till overthrown by Herod the Great
Machabees, The Books of - The author, date, and contents of 1 and 2 Machabees. A brief look at 3 and 4 Machabees
Machabeus, Judas - Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4)
Machiavelli - Including a short biography, a list of his works and a summary of his ideas
Macrina the Younger, Saint - Granddaughter of St. Macrina the Elder, and the sister of St. Gregory of Nyssa. She died in 379
Madras - Archdiocese in India
Madrid-Alcalá - Province and town in Spain
Magdala - It is perhaps the Migdal-El mentioned in the Old Testament (Jos., xix, 38) belonging to the tribe of Nephtali
Magdalens - The members of certain religious communities of penitent women who desired to reform their lives
Magdeburg - Capital of the Prussian Province of Saxony, situated on the Elbe; pop. 241,000; it is noted for its industries, particularly the production of sugar, its trade, and its commerce. From 968 until 1552 it was the seat of an archbishopric
Magellan, Ferdinand - Short biographical article on the Portuguese explorer (1480-1521)
Magi - The 'wise men from the East' who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2)
Magisterium and Tradition - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission
Magna Carta - The charter of liberties granted by King John of England in 1215 and confirmed with modifications by Henry III in 1216, 1217, and 1225
Magnificat - The title commonly given to the Latin text and vernacular translation of the Canticle (or Song) of Mary
Maimonides, Teaching of Moses - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines
Mainz - German town and bishopric in Hesse; formerly the seat of an archbishop and elector
Maistre, Joseph-Marie, Comte de - Biographical article, summarizing his chief arguments for authority and against Gallicanism
Majella, St. Gerard - Tailor, Redemptorist, called 'Father of the Poor,' d. 1755
Majordomo - Chief steward of the household of the pope
Malachias - Examination of the Old Testament prophet and book
Malachy, Saint - Abbot of Bangor, later Archbishop of Armagh, d. 1148. Article includes testimony from St. Bernard of Clairvaux on St. Malachy's character
Malatesta, House of - The name of an Italian family prominent in the history of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, famous alike in the poetry of Dante and in the annals of the early Renaissance
Malchus - A name common in the Semitic languages and of special interest as being that borne by the Jewish servant whose ear was struck off by St. Peter
Malediction (in Scripture) - Four principal words are rendered maledictio in the Vulgate, 'curse' in Douay Version
Malory, Sir Thomas - Writer of the 'Morte Arthure', the earliest production of English prose
Malta - The group of Maltese islands, including Malta, Gozo, Comine and a few inconsiderable islets, lies 58 miles south of Sicily and about 180 miles S.E. by E. of Cape Bon in Tunisia
Malta, Knights of - The most important of all the military orders, both for the extent of its area and for its duration
Mamertine Prison - The so-called 'Mamertine Prison', beneath the church of S. Giuseppe dei Falegnami, via di Marforio, Rome, is generally accepted as being identical with 'the prison ... in the middle of the city, overlooking the forum', mentioned by Livy (I, xxxiii)
Mammon - Mamona; the spelling Mammona is contrary to the textual evidence and seems not to occur in printed Bibles till the edition of Elzevir
Man - Includes sections on the nature of man, the origin of man, and the end of man
Mandan Indians - Tribe occupying jointly with the Hidatsa (Minitari or Grosventre) and Arikara (Ree) the Fort Berthold reservation, on both sides of the Missouri, near its conjunction with the Knife River, North Dakota
Mangalore - Diocese on the west coast of India, suffragan of Bombay
Manichæism - A religion founded by the Persian Mani in the latter half of the third century
Manila - This archdiocese comprises the city of Manila, the provinces of Bataan, Bulacan, Cavite, Mindoro, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, Rizal, Tarlac, and Zambales; and the Districts of Infanta and Marinduque in the Province of Tayabas
Maniple - An ornamental vestment in the form of a band, a little over a yard long and from somewhat over two to almost four inches wide, which is placed on the left arm in such manner that it falls in equal length on both sides of the arm
Manna - The food miraculously sent to the Israelites during their forty years sojourn in the desert (Exodus 16 and Numbers 11:6-9)
Manning, Henry Edward - Cardinal Archbishop of Westminster (1808-1892)
Mantegna, Andrea - Biography of the Italian painter
Manu, The Laws of - The English designation commonly applied to the 'Manava Dharma-sastra', a metrical Sanskrit compendium of ancient sacred laws and customs held in the highest reverence by the orthodox adherents of Brahminism
Manuscripts - Every book written by hand on flexible material and intended to be placed in a library is called a manuscript
Manuscripts, Illuminated - A large number of manuscripts covered with painted ornaments
Manuscripts of the Bible - Manuscripts are written, as opposed to printed, copies of the original text or of a version either of the whole Bible or of a part thereof
Marcellinus, Pope - Elected to the papacy in 296. He died in 304, probably of natural causes, since no early source calls him a martyr
Marcellus I, Saint, Pope - After a vacancy in office following the death of Pope St. Marcellinus, was elected to the papacy in 308. Fairly lengthy biographical article
Marcellus II, Pope - Born 6 May, 1501, at Montepulciano in Tuscany; died 6 May, 1555, at Rome. His father, Ricardo Cervini, was Apostolic treasurer in the March of Ancona
Marcian - Roman Emperor at Constantinople, b. in Thrace about 390; d. January, 457
Marcionites - Said that the creator 'god' of the Old Testament was not the good God and Father of Jesus Christ of the New Testament. Had their own shadow hierarchy and their own Bible, which consisted of parts of Luke and Paul, edited so as to disparage the Old Testament. Only the unmarried were allowed to be baptized. Marcionism may have led to the formation of the Apostle's Creed as rebuttal, and certainly was an incentive in deciding on the canon of the New Testament
Marco Polo - Venetian traveller (1251-1324)
Marcus, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336
Marcus Aurelius Antoninus - Second-century Roman emperor and philosopher
Margaret, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch
Margaret of Hungary, Blessed - Princess who became a Dominican at the age of 4. She died in 1270 or 1271, and was canonized in 1943
Margaret Clitherow, Saint - Article on this martyr, d. 1586, who is called the 'Pearl of York.' St. Margaret was crushed to death for the crime of harboring priests
Margaret Mary, Saint - Biographical article on the apostle of the devotion to the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Margaret of Cortona, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1297
Margaret of Scotland, Saint - Biographical entry on the eleventh-century queen
Margaret Pole, Blessed - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541
Maria de Agreda - Franciscan mystic (1602-1665)
Marian Priests - This term is applied to those Englishpriests who being ordained in or before the reign of Queen Mary (1553-1558), survived into the reign of Elizabeth
Maria Theresa - Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Roman-German Empress, born 1717; died 1780
Marie Antoinette - Biography of the Queen of France
Marie de France - Twelfth-century French poetess
Marie de l'Incarnation, Venerable - Baptismal name Marie Guyard. First superior of the Ursulines of Quebec. Biography
Marina, Saint - Also known in the Christian East as St. Marina. Virgin and martyr from Pisidian Antioch
Marinus I, Pope - Reigned 882-884
Marinus II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946
Mark, Saint - What can be pieced together of St. Mark's life from Scripture. Also reports on tradition surrounding the saint
Mark, Pope Saint - Reigned for less than 9 months, d. 336
Mark, Gospel of - The Second Gospel, like the other two Synoptics, deals chiefly with the Galilean ministry of Christ, and the events of the last week at Jerusalem
Maronites - History of the Maronite nation and Church
Marquette, Jacques - Jesuit missionary and discoverer of the Mississippi River, b. in 1636, at Laon, a town in north central France; d. near Ludington, Michigan, 19 May, 1675
Marriage Banns - In general the ecclesiastical announcement of the names of persons contemplating marriage
Marriage, Civil - The municipal law deals with this status only as a civil institution
Marriage, History of - The Catholic views of marriage
Marriage, Mixed - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels
Marriage, Moral and Canonical Aspect of - Marriage is that individual union through which man and woman by their reciprocal rights form one principle of generation
Marriage, Mystical - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ
Marriage, Ritual of - The form for the celebration of the Sacrament of Matrimony is detailed
Marriage, Sacrament of - Christian marriage (i.e. marriage between baptized persons) is really a sacrament of the New Law in the strict sense of the word is for all Catholics an indubitable truth
Marriage, Validation of - May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties
Marsilius of Padua - Physician and theologian, b. at Padua about 1270; d. about 1342
Martel, Charles - French monarch, born about 688; died at Quierzy on the Oise, 21 October, 741
Martha, Saint - Sister of Mary of Bethany and of Lazarus
Martianus Capella - Roman writer of Africa who flourished in the fifth century
Martin I, Pope Saint - Opposed the Monothelites, who were supported by the emperor. He was taken prisoner to Constantinople, but refused to sign a heretical declaration. He died in exile in 655
Martin II, Pope - Reigned 942-946; died in April or May, 946
Martin IV, Pope - Born at the castle of Montpensier in the old French province of Touraine at an unknown date; d. at Perugia 28 March, 1285. As priest he held a benefice at Rouen for a short time, whereupon he became canon and treasurer at the church of St. Martin in Tours
Martin V, Pope - Born at Genazzano in the Campagna di Roma, 1368; died at Rome, 20 Feb., 1431
Martin of Tours, Saint - Fairly lengthy biographical article on this bishop, who died in around 397
Martyr - The Greek word martus signifies a witness who testifies to a fact of which he has knowledge from personal observation. The term martyr came to be exclusively applied to those who had died for the faith
Martyrology - By martyrology is understood a catalogue of martyrs and saints arranged according to the order of their feasts, i. e., according to the calendar
Martyrs, Acts of the - Records of the trials of early Christian martyrs made by the notaries of the court
Martyrs, Japanese - The most famous of the Japanese martyrs are the twenty-six who were crucified in Nagasaki in 1597, but thousands of other Japanese died for the faith between 1560 and 1860
Mary, Blessed Virgin, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God
Mary, Children of - The Sodality of Children of Mary Immaculate owes its origin to the manifestation of the Virgin Immaculate of the Miraculous Medal, on which the Church has placed a seal, by appointing the twenty-seventh of November as its feast
Mary, Devotion to the Heart of - Description of this devotion, along with its history
Mary, Devotion to the Virgin - Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints
Mary, Feast of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary - The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. . .
Mary, Mother of John Mark - We know nothing of her; but from the fact that a meeting of the Church was held in her house, we may conclude that she was possessed of some wealth
Mary, Name of - In Scripture and in Catholic use
Mary, Name of - The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam
Mary, Society of (Marist Fathers) - A religious order of priests, so called on account of the special devotion they profess toward the Blessed Virgin
Mary, Tomb of the Blessed Virgin - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus
Mary of Cleophas - This title occurs only in John, xix, 25. A comparison of the lists of those who stood at the foot of the cross would seem to identify her with Mary, the mother of James the Less and Joseph (Mark 15:40; cf. Matthew 27:56)
Mary of Romans 16:6 - She had 'laboured much among' the Roman Church, hence St. Paul's salutation to her
Mary Frances of the Five Wounds of Jesus, Saint - Third Order Franciscan, d. 1791
Maryland - One of the thirteen English colonies which after the Revolution of 1776 became the original States of the American Union
Mary Magdalen, Saint - Article on the Apostle to the Apostles
Mary Magdalen de' Pazzi, Saint - Biography of the 17th-century Carmelite mystic
Mary of Egypt, Saint - Biographical article on the penitent and hermit, who died around 421
Mary Queen of Scots - Mary Stuart, born at Linlithgow, 8 December, 1542; died at Fotheringay, 8 February, 1587. She was the only legitimate child of James V of Scotland
Mary Tudor - Queen of England from 1553 to 1558; born 18 February, 1516; died 17 November, 1558. Mary was the daughter and only surviving child of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon
Masaccio - Italian painter, born about 1402, at San Giovanni di Valdarno, a stronghold situated between Arezzo and Florence; died, probably at Rome, in 1429
Masonry - An overview of Freemasonry and description of its condemnation by the Catholic Church
Mass, Liturgy of the - The complex of prayers and ceremonies that make up the service of the Eucharist in the Latin rites
Mass, Music of the - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment
Mass, Nuptial - 'Missa pro sponso et sponsa', the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacrament of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element
Mass, Sacrifice of the - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Massa Candida - The fame of the Massa Candida has been perpetuated chiefly through two early references to them: that of St. Augustine, and that of the poet Prudentius
Massachusetts - One of the thirteen original United States of America. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts covers part of the territory originally granted to the Plymouth Company of England
Massacre, Saint Bartholomew's Day - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes
Masses, Bequests for - Information on court cases about the subject
Massorah - The textual tradition of Hebrew Bible, an official registration of its words, consonants, vowels and accents
Materialism - As the word itself signifies, Materialism is a philosophical system which regards matter as the only reality in the world, which undertakes to explain every event in the universe as resulting from the conditions and activity of matter, and which thus denies the existence of God and the soul
Mathusala - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5
Matilda, Saint - Biography of the Queen of Germany, wife of Henry I (the Fowler). She died in 968
Matilda, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298
Matins - Not Morning Prayer, but a nighttime prayer, which has now been replaced by the Office of Readings
Matter - Taking the term in its widest sense, matter signifies that out of which anything is made or composed
Matthew, Saint - The Apostle and Evangelist, in Scripture and tradition
Matthew, Gospel of Saint - Detailed article about the first Gospel
Matthias, Saint - The Apostle, in Scripture and legend
Maundy Thursday - The feast of Maundy (or Holy) Thursday solemnly commemorates the institution of the Eucharist and is the oldest of the observances peculiar to Holy Week
Maurice, Saint - Leader of the Theban Legion, killed around 287
Maximus of Constantinople, Saint - Also known as Maximus the Theologian or Maximus Confessor. Monk, abbot, wrote on ascetic mysticism, and on the Incarnation against the Monothelites. Died in exile, 662
Maya Indians - The most important of the cultured native peoples of North America, both in the degree of their civilization and in population and resources, formerly occupying a territory of about 60,000 square miles, including the whole of the peninsula of Yucatan, Southern Mexico, together with the adjacent portion of Northern Guatemala
Mecca - The birthplace of Mohammed and the seat of the famous Kaaba, it was celebrated even in pre-Islamic times as the chief sanctuary of the Arabs, and visited by numerous pilgrims and devotees
Mechtilde, Saint - Born Matilda von Hackeborn-Wippra, blood sister of the Abbess Gertrude von Hackeborn, monastic herself. Quite plausibly the model for Matelda in Dante's 'Purgatorio.' She died in 1298
Mechtild of Magdeburg - A famous medieval mystic (1210-1285)
Medals, Devotional - A medal may be defined to be a piece of metal, usually in the form of a coin, not used as money, but struck or cast for a commemorative purpose, and adorned with some appropriate effigy, device, or inscription. In the present article we are concerned only with religious medals
Medal, Miraculous - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris
Medal of Saint Benedict - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict
Media and Medes - An ancient country of Asia and the inhabitants thereof
Mediator (Christ as Mediator) - A mediator is one who brings estranged parties to an amicable agreement. In New Testament theology the term invariably implies that the estranged beings are God and man, and it is appropriated to Christ, the One Mediator
Medici, House of - A Florentine family, the members of which, having acquired great wealth as bankers, rose in a few generations to be first the unofficial rulers of the republic of Florence and afterwards the recognized sovereigns of Tuscany
Medici, Catherine de' - Born 13 April, 1519; died 5 January, 1589; she was the daughter of Lorenzo de' Medici (II), Duke of Urbino, and Madeleine de la Tour d' Auvergne who, by her mother, Catherine of Bourbon, was related to the royal house of France
Medici, Maria de' - Queen of France; b. at Florence, 26 April, 1573; d. at Cologne, 3 July, 1642
Medicine, History of - Presents the history of modern medical science from its Greek foundation
Melancthon, Philipp - Extensive article, informative. Thorough examination of his humanism and his contributions to western educational theory and practice
Melchisedech - King of Salem (Gen. xiv, 18-20)
Melchites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite
Melito, Saint - Bishop of Sardis, ecclesiastical writer, latter half of the second century
Melkites - The people of Syria, Palestine, and Egypt who remained faithful to the Council of Chalcedon (451) when the greater part turned Monophysite
Memory - Memory is the capability of the mind, to store up conscious processes, and reproduce them later with some degree of fidelity
Mencius - Chinese philosopher (b. 371 B.C.)
Mendel, Mendelism - Gregor Johann Mendel (the first name was taken on entrance to his order), b. 22 July, 1822, at Heinzendorf near Odrau, in Austrian Silesia; d. 6 January 1884, at the Augustinian Abbey of St. Thomas, Brunn
Mendicant Friars - Members of those religious orders which, originally, by vow of poverty renounced all proprietorship not only individually but also (and in this differing from the monks) in common, relying for support on their own work and on the charity of the faithful. Hence the name of begging friars
Mennonites - A Protestant denomination of Europe and America which arose in Switzerland in the sixteenth century and derived its name from Menno Simons, its leader in Holland
Menologium - A particular service-book of the Greek Church. From its derivation the term Menologium means 'month-set', in other words, a book arranged according to the months
Mensa, Mensal Revenue - The Latin word mensa has for its primitive signification 'a table for meals'; it designates by extension the expenses, or better, the necessary resources of sustenance, and generally, all the resources for personal support. He who lives at the expense of another, and at his table, is his 'commensal'. In ecclesiastical language, the mensa is that portion of the property of a church which is appropriated to defraying the expenses either of the prelate or of the community which serves the church, and is administered at the will of the one or the other
Mental Reservation - The name applied to a doctrine which has grown out of the common Catholic teaching about lying and which is its complement
Mercedarians - A congregation of men founded in 1218 by St. Peter Nolasco, born 1189, at Mas-des-Saintes-Puelles, Department of Aude, France
Mercy, Corporal and Spiritual Works of - Mercy as it is here contemplated is said to be a virtue influencing one's will to have compassion for, and, if possible, to alleviate another's misfortune
Mercy, Sisters of - A congregation of women founded in Dublin, Ireland, in 1827, by Catherine Elizabeth McAuley, born 29 September, 1787, at Stormanstown House, County Dublin
Merici, Saint Angela - Biography of the founder of the Ursulines, who died in 1540
Merit - By merit (meritum) in general is understood that property of a good work which entitles the doer to receive a reward from him in whose service the work is done
Messias - The Greek form Messias is a transliteration of the Hebrew, Messiah, 'the anointed'. The word appears only twice of the promised prince (Daniel 9:26; Psalm 2:2); yet, when a name was wanted for the promised one, who was to be at once King and Saviour, it was natural to employ this synonym for the royal title, denoting at the same time the King's royal dignity and His relation to God
Metalwork in the Service of the Church - From the earliest days the Church has employed utensils and vessels of metal in its liturgical ceremonies. This practice increased during the Middle Ages
Metaphysics - That portion of philosophy which treats of the most general and fundamental principles underlying all reality and all knowledge
Metempsychosis - The doctrine of the transmigration of souls, teaches that the same soul inhabits in succession the bodies of different beings, both men and animals
Methodism - A religious movement which was originated in 1739 by John Wesley in the Anglican Church, and subsequently gave rise to numerous separate denominations
Methodius and Cyril, Saints - Also called Constantine and Methodius. Biography of these ninth-century brothers, Apostles of the Slavs
Methuselah - One of the Hebrew patriarchs, mentioned in Genesis 5
Metropolitan - In ecclesiastical language, refers to whatever relates to the metropolis, the principal city, or see, of an ecclesiastical province
Metternich, Klemens Lothar Wenzel Von - Statesman; born at Coblenz, 15 May, 1773; died at Vienna, 11 June, 1859
Mexico - Situated at the extreme point of the North American continent, bounded on the north by the United States, on the east by the Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean Sea, British Honduras, and Guatemala, and on the south and west by the Pacific Ocean
Miami Indians - An important tribe of Algonquian stock formerly claiming prior dominion over the whole of what is now Indiana and western Ohio, including the territories drained by the Wabash, St. Joseph, Maumee, and Miami rivers
Michael the Archangel, Saint - Article about this angel in Scripture and tradition
Michael, Military Orders of Saint - Information on three groups by this name
Michael Cærularius - Patriarch of Constantinople (1043-58), author of the second and final schism of the Byzantine Church, date of birth unknown; d. 1058
Michelangelo Buonarroti - Italian sculptor, painter, and architect (1475-1564)
Middle Ages - A term commonly used to designate that period of European history between the Fall of the Roman Empire and about the middle of the fifteenth century
Midwives - Come under the canon law of the Church in their relation towards two of the sacraments, baptism and matrimony
Migne, Jacques-Paul - Priest, and publisher of theological works, born at Saint-Flour, 25 October, 1800; died at Paris, 24 October, 1875
Migration - The movement of populations from place to place
Milan - Located in Lombardy, northern Italy
Military Orders, The - A historical review of dozens of military orders
Millennium and Millenarianism - At the end of time Christ will return in all His splendour to gather together the just, to annihilate hostile powers, and to found a glorious kingdom on earth for the enjoyment of the highest spiritual and material blessings; He Himself will reign as its king, and all the just, including the saints recalled to life, will participate in it
Millet, Jean-François - French painter; b. at Gruchy, near Cherbourg, 4 October, 1814; d. at Barbizon, 20 January, 1875
Miltiades, Pope Saint - Died in 314. An African, his name is also sometimes given as Miltiadea or Melchiades
Mind - Explores the term in relation to consciousness, matter, and mechanism
Minister - Even before the Reformation the word minister was occasionally used in English to describe those of the clergy actually taking part in a function, or the celebrant as distinguished from the assistants, but it was not then used sine addito to designate an ecclesiastic. This employment of the term dates from Calvin
Minor Orders - The lower degrees of the hierarchy are designated by the name of minor orders, in opposition to the 'major' or 'sacred' orders
Mint, Papal - History of the coins
Minucius Felix - Christian apologist, flourished between 160 and 300; the exact date is not known
Miracle - In general, a wonderful thing, the word being so used in classical Latin; in a specific sense, the Latin Vulgate designates by miracula wonders of a peculiar kind, expressed more clearly in the Greek text by the terms terata, dynameis, semeia, i.e., wonders performed by supernatural power as signs of some special mission or gift and explicitly ascribed to God
Miracle Plays and Mysteries - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Miracles, Gift of - The gift of miracles is one of those mentioned by St. Paul in his First Epistle to the Corinthians (xii, 9, 10), among the extraordinary graces of the Holy Ghost
Miraculous Medal - The devotion owes its origin to Zoe Labore, a member of the Daughters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul, known in religion as Sister Catherine, to whom the Blessed Virgin Mary appeared three separate times in the year 1830, at the mother-house of the community at Paris
Mirandola, Giovanni Pico della - Italian philosopher and scholar (1463-1494)
Miserere - The first word of the Vulgate text of Psalm 1
Missa Pro Populo - A Mass celebrated for parishioners on all Sundays and holidays of obligation
Missal - The book which contains the prayers said by the priest at the altar as well as all that is officially read or sung in connection with the offering of the holy Sacrifice of the Mass throughout the ecclesiastical year
Mission, Congregation of Priests of the - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Mission Indians (of California) - A name of no real ethnic significance, but used as a convenient popular and official term to designate the modern descendants of those tribes of California, of various stocks and languages, evangelized by the Franciscans in the latter part of the eighteenth and early part of the nineteenth centuries, beginning in 1769
Missions, California - Divided into Lower or Old California and Upper California
Missions, Catholic - A general survey of the missionary activity of the Catholic Church at the time the article was written (1908)
Missions, Catholic Indian, of Canada - History of the missions
Missions, Catholic Indian, of the United States - Includes the history of the missions and a list of the missionary martyrs
Missouri Test-Oath - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States
Mithraism - A pagan religion consisting mainly of the cult of the ancient Indo-Iranian Sun-god Mithra
Mitre - A kind of folding-cap consisting of two like parts, each stiffened by a lining and rising to a peak; these are sewn together on the sides, but are united above by a piece of material that can fold together
Mixed Marriage - Those between Catholics and non-Catholics, when the latter have been baptized in some Christian sect. The term is also used to designate unions between Catholics and infidels
Moab, Moabites - In the Old Testament, the word Moab designates (1) a son of Lot by his elder daughter (Genesis 19:37); (2) the people of whom this son of Lot is represented as the ancestor (Exodus 15:15, etc.), and who are also called 'the Moabites' (Genesis 19:37); and possibly (3) the territory occupied by the Moabites (Numbers 21:11)
Mobile - Suffragan of New Orleans, comprises the State of Alabama and western Florida
Modalism (Monarchianism) - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism
Modernism - Etymologically, modernism means an exaggerated love of what is modern, an infatuation for modern ideas
Mohammed and Mohammedism - Mohammed, 'the Praised One', the prophet of Islam and the founder of Mohammedanism, was born at Mecca (20 August?) A.D. 570
Molai, Jacques de - Born at Rahon, Jura, about 1244; d. at Paris, 18 March, 1314. A Templar at Beaune since 1265, Molai is mentioned as Grand Master of the Templars as early as 1298
Molinism - The name used to denote one of the systems which purpose to reconcile grace and free will
Moloch - A divinity worshipped by the idolatrous Israelites
Monad - The word monad is used by the neo-Platonists to signify the One; for instance, in the letters of the Christian Platonist Synesius, God is described as the Monad of Monads
Monarchians - The so-called Dynamic Monarchians were actually a form of adoptionism. Monarchianism, properly speaking, refers to the Modalists. Denial of the Trinity, assertion that there is only one Divine Person, who appears in three different roles. Noetians and Sabellians were two schools of Modalism
Monasteries in England, Suppression of - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century
Monasticism - The act of 'dwelling alone' (Greek monos, monazein, monachos), has come to denote the mode of life pertaining to persons living in seclusion from the world, under religious vows and subject to a fixed rule, as monks, friars, nuns, or in general as religious
Monasticism, Eastern - Includes the origin and history
Monasticism, Pre-Chalcedonian - Egypt was the Motherland of Christian monasticism. It sprang into existence there at the beginning of the fourth century
Monasticism, Western - The introduction of monasticism into the West may be dated from about A.D. 340 when St. Athanasius visited Rome accompanied by the two Egyptian monks Ammon and Isidore, disciples of St. Anthony
Monica, Saint - Widow, d. 387. The mother of St. Augustine of Hippo
Monism - A philosophical term which, in its various meanings, is opposed to Dualism or Pluralism
Monk - A member of a community of men, leading a more or less contemplative life apart from the world, under the vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, according to a rule characteristic of the particular order to which he belongs
Monogram of Christ - By the Monogram of Christ is ordinarily understood the abbreviation of Christ's name formed by combining the first two letters of the Greek form; this monogram was also known as the Chrismon
Monophysites and Monophysitism - Rejected the dual nature of Christ. Rejected by the Council of Chalcedon (451)
Monopoly, Moral Aspects of - According to its etymology, monopoly (monopolia) signifies exclusive sale, or exclusive privilege of selling. Present usage, however, extends the term to any degree of unified control over a commodity sufficient to enable the person or corporation in control to limit supply and fix price
Monotheism - A word coined in comparatively modern times to designate belief in the one supreme God, the Creator and Lord of the world, the eternal Spirit, All-powerful, All-wise, and All-good, the Rewarder of good and the Punisher of evil, the Source of our happiness and perfection
Monothelitism and Monothelites - A modification of Monophysitism proposing that Christ had no human free will. Rejected by the Third Council of Constantinople (680)
Monseigneur - A French honorific appellation, etymologically corresponding to the English 'my lord,' and the Italian monsignore
Monsignor - As early as the fourteenth century it was the custom to address persons high in rank or power with the title Monseigneur or Monsignore
Monstrance (Ostensorium) - A vessel designed for the exhibition of some object of piety
Montaigne, Michel-Eyquen de - A concise study of the thinker, by Georges Bertrin
Montanists - Schismatics of the second century, first known as Phrygians, or 'those among the Phrygians' (oi kata Phrygas), then as Montanists, Pepuzians, and (in the West) Cataphrygians
Monte Cassino, Abbey of - An abbey nullius situated about eighty miles south of Rome, the cradle of the Benedictine Order
Montes Pietatis - Charitable institutions of credit that lend money at low rates of interest, or without interest at all, upon the security of objects left in pawn, with a view to protecting persons in want from usurers
Montesqieu, Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de - Detailed study of this writer's intellectual career, by Antoine Degert
Montfort, Simon de - An Earl of Leicester, date of birth unknown, died at Toulouse, 25 June, 1218
Months, Special Devotions for - A list of the more common devotions with the indulgences attached
Montpellier - The Diocese of Montpellier (Montis Pessulani) comprises the department of Herault, and is a suffragan of Avignon
Mont-St-Michel - A Benedictine Abbey, in the Diocese of Avranches, Normandy, France
Moral Theology - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end
Moralities - Moralities are a development or an offshoot of the Miracle Plays and together with these form the greater part of Medieval drama. They were popular in the fifteenth and early sixteenth centuries and existed side by side with the Miracle Plays of that date
Morality - Morality is antecedent to ethics: it denotes those concrete activities of which ethics is the science. It may be defined as human conduct in so far as it is freely subordinated to the ideal of what is right and fitting
Moran, Francis Patrick - Third Archbishop of Sydney, b. at Leighlinbridge, Ireland, 16 Sept., 1830; d, at Manly, Sydney, 16 Aug., 1911
Moravia - Austrian crown land east of Bohemia
Moravian Brethren - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722
More, Thomas, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535
Morelos, José María - Mexican patriot, b. at Valladolid (now called Morelia in his honour), Mexico, on 30 September, 1765; shot at San Cristobal Ecatepec on 22 December, 1815
Mormons - Also called the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints. This religious body had its origin during the early part of the nineteenth century. Joseph Smith, the founder and first president of the sect, was the son of a Vermont farmer, and was born in Sharon township, Windsor County, in that state, on 23 December, 1805
Mortification - One of the methods which Christian ascesticism employs in training the soul to virtuous and holy living
Mosaic Legislation - The body of juridical, moral, and ceremonial institutions, laws, and decisions comprised in the last four books of the Pentateuch, and ascribed by Christian and Hebrew tradition to Moses
Mosaics - Includes information on the history and techniques
Moscow - The ancient capital of Russia and the chief city of the government (province) of Moscow, situated in almost the centre of European Russia
Moses - Hebrew liberator, leader, lawgiver, prophet, and historian, lived in the thirteenth and early part of the twelfth century, B. C
Moses Maimonides, Teaching of - Article by William Turner discusses this Jewish thinker's life and doctrines
Motet - A short piece of music set to Latin words, and sung instead of, or immediately after, the Offertorium, or as a detached number in extra-liturgical functions
Motu Proprio - The name given to certain papal rescripts on account of the clause motu proprio (of his own accord) used in the document
Mount Athos - The mountain that the architect Dinocrates offered to turn into a statue of Alexander the Great with a city in one hand and in the other a perennially flowing spring
Mount Carmel, Feast of Our Lady of - This feast was instituted by the Carmelites between 1376 and 1386
Mount Saint Mary's College - The second oldest among the Catholic collegiate institutions in the United States, is located near Emmitsburg, Maryland, within the limits of the Archdiocese of Baltimore
Mozarabic Rite - The name 'Mozarabic Rite' is given to the rite used generally in Spain and in what afterwards became Portugal from the earliest times of which we have any information down to the latter part of the eleventh century, and still surviving in the Capilla Muzarabe in Toledo cathedral and in the chapel of San Salvador or Talavera, in the old cathedral of Salamanca
Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus - Biography of the composer (1756-1791)
Mozzetta - A short, cape-shaped garment, covering the shoulders and reaching only to the elbow, with an open front, which may be fastened by means of a row of small buttons; at the neck it has a very small and purely ornamental hood
Munich-Freising - An archdiocese in Bavaria
Muratorian Canon - Also called the Muratorian Fragment, after the name of the discoverer and first editor, L. A. Muratori (in the 'Antiquitates italicae', III, Milan, 1740, 851 sq.), the oldest known canon or list of books of the New Testament
Murder - Signifies, in general, the killing of a human being. In practice, however, the word has come to mean the unjust taking away of human life, perpetrated by one distinct from the victim and acting in a private capacity
Murillo, Bartolomé Esteban - Spanish painter, d. 1682. Artist's biography with bibliography
Music, Ecclesiastical - By this term is meant the music which, by order or with the approbation of ecclesiastical authority, is employed in connexion with Divine service to promote the glorification of God and the edification of the faithful
Music of the Mass - Article covers exclusively the texts of the Mass (not seasonal) which receive a musical treatment
Musical Instruments in Church Services - History of their use, starting with the organ
Mysteries and Miracle Plays - These two names are used to designate the religious drama which developed among Christian nations at the end of the Middle Ages
Mystery - This term signifies in general that which is unknowable, or valuable knowledge that is kept secret
Mystical Body of the Church - The members of the Church are bound together by a supernatural life communicated to them by Christ through the sacraments
Mystical Marriage - In the Old and the New Testament, the love of God for man, and, in particular His relations with His chosen people (whether of the Synagogue or of the Church), are frequently typified under the form of the relations between bridegroom and bride. In like manner, Christian virginity been considered from the earliest centuries as a special offering made by the soul to its spouse, Christ
Mystical Theology - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics
Mysticism - Mysticism as direct union of the human soul with the Divinity primarily from a Catholic perspective, but does mention other mystical traditions

N

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for N or use the search box at the top of this page.

Nagasaki - History of Catholicism in this Japanese city
Nahum - Essay on the Old Testament prophet and the book which bears his name
Nails, Holy - The question has long been debated whether Christ was crucified with three or with four nails. . .
Naim - The city where Christ raised to life the widow's son
Name of Mary, Feast of the Holy - Feast commemorating all the privileges given to Mary by God and all the graces we have received through her intercession and mediation.
Names, Christian - Strictly speaking, this is not merely the first name of a person, but the name given to him at his baptism
Names, Hebrew - To the philosopher a name is an artificial sign consisting in a certain combination of articulate sounds, whereby a particular class of people are wont to designate one thing and distinguish it from all others. . .
Names of Jesus and Mary, Sisters of the Holy - Religious congregation founded 1844 in Quebec
Naples - The capital of a province in Campania, southern Italy, and formerly capital of the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies
Napoleon I (Bonaparte) - Emperor of the French (1769-1821)
Napoleon III - Emperor of the French (1808-1873)
Narthex - In early Christian architecture a portion of the church separated from the nave and reserved for those who were not admitted amongst the congregation.
Natal Day - The anniversary of a person's death
Nathan - Identifies six men of that name mentioned in the Old Testament
Nathanael - One of the first disciples of Jesus, to Whom he was brought by his friend Philip
Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the - The earliest document commemorating this feast comes from the sixth century. . .
Natural Law - In English this term is frequently employed as equivalent to the laws of nature, meaning the order which governs the activities of the material universe. Among the Roman jurists natural law designated those instincts and emotions common to man and the lower animals, such as the instinct of self-preservation and love of offspring
Naturalism - Philosophical tendency that consists essentially in looking upon nature as the one original and fundamental source of all that exists, and in attempting to explain everything in terms of nature.
Nature - Has reference to the production of things, and hence generally includes in its connotation the ideas of energy and activity.
Naturism - The term proposed by Reville to designate the worship of nature.
Navajo Indians - The largest group of Indians belonging to the Athapaskan, or Dene stock
Navarre - Territory in the Pyrenees
Nave - Architecturally the central, open space of a church, west of the choir or chancel, and separated therefrom by a low wall or screen.
Nazarene - A name applied to Our Lord in the New Testament
Nazareth - The town of Galilee where the Blessed Virgin dwelt when the Archangel announced to her the Incarnation of the Word, and where Christ lived until the age of thirty years
Nazarite - The name given by the Hebrews to a person set apart and especially consecrated to the Lord.
Nebo, Mount - A mountain of the Abarim range east of the Jordan and the Dead Sea, from which Moses surveyed the Promised Land
Nebuchadnezzar - Commentary on the two Babylonian kings of that name, especially the second, who is mentioned in Scripture
Necessity - A strict connection between different beings, or the different elements of a being, or between a being and its existence.
Necrologies - The registers in which religious communities were accustomed to enter the names of the dead — notably their own deceased members, their associates, and their principal benefactors — with a view to the offering of prayers for their souls.
Necromancy - A special mode of divination by the summoning of the dead
Negligence - The omission, whether habitual or not, of the care required for the performance of duties, or at any rate, for their full adequate discharge.
Nehemiah, Book of - Summary with some commentary
Nemrod - An examination of this Old Testament figure, mentioned in Genesis as 'a mighty hunter before the Lord' and king of Babylon
Neophyte - A term used of those who, lately converted from heathenism, have by the sacrament of Baptism, been transplanted into the higher life of the Church.
Neo-Platonism - Article by William Turner covering this movement's principal figures and later influence
Neo-Scholasticism - The development of the Scholasticism of the Middle Ages during the latter half of the nineteenth century.
Nephtali - A look at the son of Jacob and the tribe of Nephtali
Nereus and Achilleus, Domitilla and Pancratius, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May
Neri, Saint Philip Romolo - Biographical article on the Apostle of Rome, who died in 1595
Nero - The last Roman emperor (reigned 54-68) of the Julian-Claudian line
Nestorius and Nestorianism - Biography of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and examination of the unacceptable implications of his doctrine
Netherlands, The - The Low Countries, as organized by Charles V, under whom the Burgundian era ended
Neum - A term in medieval music theory
New Hampshire - The most northerly of the thirteen original states of the United States
New Jersey - One of the original thirteen states of the American Union. . .
Newman, John Henry - Lengthy and admiring biography of Newman as a thinker, author, leader, and illustrious convert to Catholicism
New Mexico - A state of the United States
New Orleans - Archdiocese in the southern United States
New Testament - Jesus Christ uses the words 'new testament' as meaning the alliance established by Himself between God and the world, and this is called 'new' as opposed to that of which Moses was the mediator
New Testament, Canon of the - The idea of a complete and clear-cut canon of the New Testament existing from the beginning, that is from Apostolic times, has no foundation in history
New Year's Day - Since there was no necessary starting-point in the circle of the year, we find among different nations, and among the same at different epochs of their history, a great variety of dates with which the new year began. . .
New York (Archdiocese) - Large archdiocese erected 1808 in the northeastern United States
New York (State) - One of the thirteen colonies of Great Britain, which on 4 July, 1776, adopted the Declaration of Independence and became the United States of America.
New Zealand - Consists of three main islands (North Island, South Island, sometimes also called Middle island, and Stewart island) and several groups of smaller islands . . .
Nicaea, First Council of - First ecumenical council, held in 325 to combat Arianism
Nicaea, Second Council of - Seventh Ecumenical Council of the Catholic Church, held in 787.
Nicene Creed - The profession of the Christian Faith common to the Catholic Church, to all the Eastern Churches separated from Rome, and to most of the Protestant denominations.
Niche - A recess for the reception of a statue, so designed as to give it emphasis, frame it effectively, and afford some measure of protection.
Nicholas I, Saint, Pope - Biography of this pope, d. 867, who upheld the authority of the papacy and the inviolability of marriage
Nicholas II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1058 to 1061
Nicholas III, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1277 to 1280
Nicholas IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1288 to 1292
Nicholas V, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1447 to 1455
Nicholas of Cusa - Lengthy article on the life and writings of the fifteenth-century canon lawyer, diplomat, and philosopher
Nicholas of Myra, Saint - Fourth-century bishop in Asia Minor. Also called St. Nicholas of Bari because his relics were translated there in the eleventh century
Nicholas of Tolentino, Saint - Augustinian hermit, d. 1306
Nicholas Owen, Saint - A Jesuit lay brother, skilled in building hiding places for priests. He died under torture in 1606
Nicodemus - A prominent Jew of the time of Christ, mentioned in the Gospel of John
Nicodemus, Gospel of - The Gospel of Nicodemus
Nicolaites - A sect mentioned in the second chapter of Revelation
Nihilism - One who bows to no authority and accepts no doctrine, however widespread, that is not supported by proof.
Nimbus - In art and archaeology signifies a shining light implying great dignity.
Nimrod - An examination of this Old Testament figure, mentioned in Genesis as 'a mighty hunter before the Lord' and king of Babylon
Ninian, Saint - British by birth, St. Ninian evangelized the southern Picts in Scotland
Noah - A study of this Old Testament figure
Noah's Ark - The form, very likely foursquare, was not convenient for navigation, but, as has been proven by the experiments of Peter Jansen and M. Vogt, it made the Ark a very suitable device for shipping heavy cargoes and floating upon the waves without rolling or pitching
Nocturns - The convoluted history of this nighttime prayer
Nominalism, Realism, Conceptualism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals
Nomination - The designation of a person for an ecclesiastical benefice or office made by the competent civil authority and conferring on the person named the right to be canonically instituted by the ecclesiastical superior.
Nonconformists - Denotes those refusing to conform with the authorized formularies and rites of the Established Church of England.
None - Essay on the daytime canonical hour recited in mid-afternoon
Non Expedit - Words with which the Holy See enjoined upon Italian Catholics the policy of abstention from parliamentary elections
Non-Jurors - Anglican Churchmen who in 1689 refused to take the oath of allegiance to William and Mary
Norbert, Saint - Biography of the founder of the Premonstratensians
Norbertines - Religious order founded in 1120 by St. Norbert
Norfolk, Catholic Dukes of - Under this title are accounts of the prominent Catholic Dukes of Norfolk since the Reformation; includes a list of the dukes
Normandy - An ancient French province, from which five 'departments' were formed in 1790
Norsemen - The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western Europe and its islands and then turned from raiding into settlers.
North Carolina - One of the original thirteen states of the United States
Northmen - The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western Europe and its islands and then turned from raiding into settlers.
Norway - Scandinavian country
Notaries - Persons appointed by competent authority to draw up official or authentic documents
Notburga, Saint - Cook noted for generosity in feeding the poor
Notoriety, Notorious - Whatever is so fully or officially proved, that it may and ought to be held as certain without further investigation, is notorious
Notre Dame de Montreal, Congregation of - Founded in the seventeenth century by Marguerite Bourgeoys
Notre Dame, School Sisters of - A religious community devoted to education.
Notre Dame, University of - University in northern Indiana in the United States
Nova Scotia - One of the maritime provinces of Canada
Novatianism - Roman priest, antipope, third-century schismatic, and founder of the sect of the Novatians
Novena - Article on the different kinds of novenas and their place in the spiritual life of the Church
Novice - The canonical Latin name of those who, having been regularly admitted into a religious order and ordinarily already confirmed in their higher vocation by a certain period of probation as postulants, are prepared by a series of exercises and tests for the religious profession
Nubia - A detailed history of Nubia, with emphasis on the religious aspects (primarily Christian and Catholic) of its culture
Numbers, Use of, in the Church - No attentive reader of the Old Testament can fail to notice that a certain sacredness seems to attach to particular numbers . . .
Numismatics - The science of coins and medals
Nun of Kent - Born probably in 1506; executed at Tyburn, 20 April, 1534; called the 'Nun of Kent'
Nunc Dimittis - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32
Nuncio - An ordinary and permanent representative of the pope, vested with both political and ecclesiastical powers, accredited to the court of a sovereign or assigned to a definite territory with the duty of safeguarding the interests of the Holy See.
Nuns - Females consecrated to God by religious vows
Nuptial Mass - 'Missa pro sponso et sponsa', the last among the votive Masses in the Missal. It is composed of lessons and chants suitable to the Sacrament of Matrimony, contains prayers for persons just married and is interwoven with part of the marriage rite, of which in the complete form it is an element

O

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for O or use the search box at the top of this page.

O Antiphons - Seven antiphons to the Magnificat, used in the Divine Office in the days preceding Christmas
Oates's Plot - A 'Popish Plot' which, during the reign of Charles II of England, Titus Oates pretended to have discovered.
Oaths - An invocation to God to witness the truth of a statement
Oaths, English Post-Reformation - The English Reformation having been imposed by the Crown, it was natural that submission to the essential points of its formularies should have been exacted with some solemnity, by oath, test, or formal declaration
Obedience - The complying with a command or precept.
Obedience, Religious - The general submission which religious vow to God, and voluntarily promise to their superiors, in order to be directed by them in the ways of perfection according to the purpose and constitutions of their order.
Obedientiaries - The lesser officials of a monastery who were appointed by will of the superior.
Oblates of Mary Immaculate - Religious society founded in 1816
Obligation - Defined in the 'Institutes' of Justinian as a 'legal bond which by a legal necessity binds us to do something according to the laws of our State'
Obreption - A type of fraud by which an ecclesiastical rescript is obtained
Observatory, Vatican - Gregory XIII ordered a tower to be erected in a convenient part of the Vatican buildings, and to be fitted out with the greatest and best instruments of the time
Occam, William of - Biographical article on the fourteenth-century Franciscan philosopher
Occasionalism - The metaphysical theory which maintains that finite things have no efficient causality of their own, but that whatever happens in the world is caused by God, creatures being merely the 'occasions' of the Divine activity.
Occasions of Sin - External circumstances — things or persons — which incite or entice one to sin.
Occult Art, Occultism - An attempt to work apparent miracles not by the power of God, but by the use of hidden forces beyond man's control
Ockham, William of - Biographical article on the fourteenth-century Franciscan philosopher
O'Connell, Daniel - Irish patriot (1775-1847)
Octave - A period of eight days, often observed liturgically
Odilia, Saint - Patroness of Alsace, d. 720, founded the convent of Hohenburg
Œcolampadius, John - Protestant theologian and organizer of Protestantism at Basle (1482-1531)
Offerings - Covers the Jewish and Christian practices of offerings and tithes
Offertory - The rite by which the bread and wine are presented to God before they are consecrated
Office, Divine - Brief essay on the historical development of the Liturgy of the Hours
Office of the Dead - Historical article on a special set of prayers for the deceased
O'Higgins, Ambrose and Bernard - South American patriots of Irish background
Ohio - The seventeenth state of the American Union
Oil of Saints - An oily substance which flows from the relics or burial places of certain saints
Oils, Holy - Oil is a product of great utility the symbolic signification of which harmonizes with its natural uses. It serves to sweeten, to strengthen, to render supple; and the Church employs it for these purposes in its rites
Ointment in Scripture - That the use of oily, fragrant materials to anoint the body is a custom going back to remote antiquity is evidenced by the Old Testament as well as other early literatures. . .
Olaf Haraldson, Saint - Martyr and King of Norway, d. 1030
Old Catholics - The sect organised in German-speaking countries to combat the dogma of Papal Infallibility.
Old Testament - The Apostle St. Paul declares himself (II Cor., iii, 6) a minister 'of the new testament', and calls (iii, 14) the covenant entered into on Mount Sinai 'the old testament'
Old Testament, Canon of the - Signifies the authoritative list or closed number of the writings composed under Divine inspiration, and destined for the well-being of the Church
Olier, Jean-Jacques - Founder of the seminary and Society of St-Sulpice (1608-1657)
Olivet, Mount - A hill immediately east of Jerusalem
Olivetans - A branch of the white monks of the Benedictine Order, founded in 1319.
Omission - The failure to do something one can and ought to do
Omnipotence - The power of God to effect whatever is not intrinsically impossible
Ontologism - An ideology which maintains that God and divine ideas are the first object of our intelligence and the intuition of God the first act of our individual knowledge
Ontology - An article on 'the science of being'
Opening Prayer (in the Mass) - The name now used only for short prayers before the Epistle in the Mass, which occur again at Lauds, Terce, Sext, None, and Vespers
Ophir - A people and a country mentioned in the Bible
Optimism - A metaphysical theory or an emotional disposition.
Oracle - A Divine communication given at a special place through specially appointed persons; also the place itself.
Orange, Councils of - Two councils that were held in southern France
Orans - An iconographic type, commonly found in the Roman catacombs, of a female figure praying with extended arms
Orate Fratres - The exhortation addressed by the celebrant to the people before the Secrets in the Roman Mass
Oratorio - A musical composition for solo voices, chorus, orchestra, and organ, to a religious text generally taken from Holy Scripture.
Oratory - A structure other than a parish church, set aside by Church authority for prayer and the celebration of Mass
Oratory of Saint Philip Neri, The - Italian, Spanish, English, and other communities, which follow the rule of St. Philip Neri.
Ordeals - A means of obtaining evidence by trials, through which the guilt or innocence of an accused person was supposedly established
Orders, Holy - The sacrament by which grace and spiritual power for the discharge of ecclesiastical offices are conferred.
Orders, The Military - A historical review of dozens of military orders
Ordinariate - This term is used in speaking collectively of all the various organs through which an ordinary, and especially a bishop, exercises the different forms of his authority.
Ordinary - Denotes any person possessing or exercising ordinary jurisdiction
Ordines Romani - The brief conspectus of the daily Office and Mass as adapted to the local calendar
Oremus - Invitation to pray, said before collects and other short prayers and occurring continually in the Roman Rite.
Oresme, Nicole - Article by Pierre Duhem on this medieval scientific thinker
Organ - A musical instrument which consists of one or several sets of pipes, each pipe giving only one tone, and which is blown and played by mechanical means.
Organic Articles, The - A name given to a law regulating public worship, comprising 77 articles relative to Catholicism, and 44 relative to Protestantism, presented by order of Napoleon to the Tribunate and the legislative body at the same time that he made these two bodies vote on the Concordat itself
Orientation of Churches - According to Tertullian the Christians of his time were, by some who concerned themselves with their form of worship, believed to votaries of the sun. . .
Oriflamme - Legendary banner
Origen and Origenism - Provides a biography and review of his works, as well as commentary on posthumous influences and the Origenistic Crises
Original Sin - Original sin is (1) the sin that Adam committed; (2) a consequence of this first sin, the hereditary stain with which we are born on account of our origin or descent from Adam.
Orléans, Councils of - Six national councils held in the Merovingian period.
Orphans and Orphanages - The death of one or both parents makes the child of the very poor a ward of the community. . .
Orsini - One of the most ancient and distinguished families of the Roman nobility, whose members often played an important role in the history of Italy
Orthodox Church - The body of Christians in union with the Patriarch of Constantinople but in schism with the Pope of Rome.
Orthodoxy - Right belief or purity of faith.
Orthodoxy, Feast of - Eastern feast that commemorates the restoration of the holy icons to the churches in 842
Orvieto - Diocese in central Italy
O Salutaris Hostia - Hymn used for the Benediction of the Most Blessed Sacrament
Osee - The prophet and his book
Ostensorium - A vessel designed for the exhibition of some object of piety
Ostrogoths - One of the two chief tribes of the Goths
Oswald, Saint - King of Northumbria and martyr, d. 642
O'Toole, Saint Lawrence - Confessor, abbot, and the first Irish-born bishop of Dublin, d. 1180
Otto I, the Great - Roman emperor and German king (912-973)
Our Father, The - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster
Our Lady, Help of Christians, Feast of - The invocation 'Help of Christians' originated in the sixteenth century.
Our Lady of Charity of the Good Shepherd - The aim of this institute is to provide a shelter for girls and women of dissolute habits, who wish to do penance for their iniquities and to lead a truly christian life
Our Lady of Good Counsel, Feast of - Feast honoring a popular Marian devotion
Our Lady of the Snow - Feast commemorating the dedication of the church of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome
Our Lady of Perpetual Help - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold
Our Lady of Perpetual Succour - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold
Overpopulation, Theories of - Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between increase of population and increase of subsistence. . .
Owen, Saint Nicholas - A Jesuit lay brother, skilled in building hiding places for priests. He died under torture in 1606
Oxford, University of - Famous institution in England
Oxford Movement, The - Lengthy historical article on the Tractarian Movement includes information on John Henry Newman, as well as on other leading lights of this nineteenth-century Anglo-Catholic campaign, such as John Keble and Hurrell Froude
Ozanam, Antoine-Frédéric - Great grand-nephew of Jacques Ozanam (1813-1853)

P

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Pachomius, Saint - Hermit who founded a cenobitical community, d. 346. Some speculation on how and why St. Pachomius came up with the idea of the cenobitical life
Pacioli, Lucas - Tuscan mathematician (d. c. 1509)
Padua - Diocese in northern Italy
Paganism - Paganism, in the broadest sense includes all religions other than the true one revealed by God, and, in a narrower sense, all except Christianity, Judaism, and Islam
Painting, Religious - Painting has always been associated with the life of the Church. . .
Palestrina, Giovanni Pierluigi da - The greatest composer of liturgical music of all time (1514-1594)
Pall - A heavy, black cloth, spread over the coffin in the church at a funeral, or over the catafalque at other services for the dead.
Pall, Funeral - A black cloth usually spread over the coffin while the obsequies are performed for a deceased person
Pallium - A circular band about two inches wide, worn about the neck, and having two hanging pendants
Palm in Christian Symbolism - A Christian symbol of victory
Palm Sunday - The sixth and last Sunday of Lent and beginning of Holy Week
Pancratius and Domitilla, Nereus and Achilleus, Saints - Roman martyrs who shared a feast day on 12 May
Pange Lingua Gloriosi - Article on the two hymns of this name. The second is by Thomas Aquinas. The first is 'generally credited' to Venantius Fortunatus, though some believe it is the work of Claudianus Mamertus
Panpsychism - A philosophical theory which holds that everything in the universe, inorganic and organic, has some degree of consciousness
Pantheism - The false theory according to which God and the world are one
Papacy, The - The ecclesiastical system in which the pope governs the Catholic Church as its supreme head; also, the papal influence viewed as a political force in history.
Pápago Indians - An important tribe of Shoshonean linguistic stock
Papal Elections - The method of electing the pope has varied considerably at different periods of the history of the Church. . .
Papal Mint - History of the coins
Papal States - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler
Papias, Saint - Thorough essay on what is known of this bishop, called by St. Irenaeus 'a hearer of John.' Also an exposition of the writings of Papias, who died around 120
Parables - A comparison, or a parallel, by which one thing is used to illustrate another.
Paracelsus, Theophrastus - Extensive biographical entry on the physician and alchemist
Paraclete - Another name for the Holy Ghost.
Paradise, Terrestrial - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden
Paralipomenon, Books of - Two books of the Bible containing a summary of sacred history from Adam to the end of the Captivity.
Parallelism - The balance of verse with verse, an essential and characteristic feature in Hebrew poetry.
Paray-le-Monial - A town in France
Paré, Ambroise - French surgeon (1517-1590)
Parents - Considers the duties of parents toward their children, and vice versa
Paris - Archdiocese and city in France
Paris, University of - Famous and ancient university in France
Parish - A portion of a diocese under the authority of a priest legitimately appointed to secure the helps of religion for the faithful dwelling therein
Particular Judgment - The Catholic doctrine of the particular judgment is this: that immediately after death the eternal destiny of each separated soul is decided by the just judgment of God
Pascal, Blaise - French scientist and philosopher (1623-1662)
Pascal Baylon, Saint - Aragonese Franciscan lay brother, d. 1592
Pasch - Great Jewish holiday
Paschal I, Pope - Pope who reigned from 817 to 824
Paschal II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1099-1118
Paschal III (Antipope) - Second antipope in the time of Pope Alexander III (d. 1168)
Paschal Candle - A large wax candle, usually fixed in a great candlestick and featured in the service on Holy Saturday
Paschal Lamb - A lamb which the Israelites were commanded to eat with peculiar rites as a part of the Passover celebration
Passionists - Full title: 'The Congregation of Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of Our Lord Jesus Christ'.
Passion of Jesus Christ - Devotion to the sufferings of Our Lord, which culminated in His death upon the Cross
Passion of Jesus Christ in the Four Gospels - Four separate accounts of the Passion of Our Lord, each of which supplements the others
Passion Plays - The modern drama does not originate in the ancient, but in the religious plays of the Middle Ages, themselves an outcome of the liturgy of the Church. . .
Passions - Motions of the sensitive appetite in man which tend towards the attainment of some real or apparent good, or the avoidance of some evil.
Passover- Great Jewish holiday
Pasteur, Louis - Founder of physio-chemistry, father of bacteriology, inventor of bio-therapeutics (1822-1895)
Pastor - A priest who has the cure of souls, that is, who is bound in virtue of his office to promote the spiritual welfare of the faithful by preaching, administering the sacraments, and exercising certain powers of external government
Pastoral Epistles (Timothy and Titus) - Disciples of St. Paul
Pastoral Staff - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Pastoral Theology - The science of the care of souls
Paten - A small shallow plate or disc of precious metal upon which the element of bread is offered to God at the Offertory of the Mass, and upon which the consecrated Host is again placed after the Fraction.
Pater Noster - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster
Patmore, Coventry - One of the major poets of the nineteenth century
Patmos - A small volcanic island in the Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor
Patriarch - The word 'patriarch' as applied to Biblical personages comes from the Septuagint version . . .
Patriarch and Patriarchate - Names of the highest ecclesiastical dignitaries after the pope, and of the territory they rule.
Patrick, Saint - Lengthy biographical article on the Apostle of Ireland
Patrick's Purgatory, Saint - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . .
Patrology - The study of the writings of the Fathers of the Church
Patron Saints - Statistics on popular titular patrons of churches in Rome, Belgium, and English-speaking countries. Short lists of some national patrons and patron saints of professional occupations
Paul, Saint - The great Apostle to the Gentiles
Paua href=l I, Pope - Biographical article on this eighth-century pontiff
Paul II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1464 to 1471
Paul III, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1534 to 1549
Paul IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1555 to 1559
Paul V, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1605 to 1621
Paul and John, Saints - Roman martyrs, c. 362
Paulicians - Dualistic heretical sect, derived originally from Manichaeism.
Paul of the Cross, Saint - Biographical essay on the Italian-born founder of the Passionists. He died in 1775
Paul the Hermit, Saint - Fled into the Egyptian desert to escape the Decian persecution. Died at the age of 113
Paul the Simple, Saint - Monk, disciple of St. Antony, d. around 339
Paul-without-the-Walls, Saint - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established
Paula, Saint - Widowed at the age of 32, Paula embarked on the monastic life in Bethlehem, along with her daughter Eustochium. Paula died in 404
Paulinus, Saint - Looked upon as a saint even in his own lifetime. He died in 431
Pax in the Liturgy - A liturgical salutation ('Peace be with you')
Peace of the Church - The condition of the Church after the publication at Milan in 313 by Emperor Constantine of an edict of toleration
Peasants, War of the (1524-25) - A revolt of the peasants of southern and central Germany
Pectoral - The breastplate worn by the high priest in the Old Testament
Pectorale - The cross worn by the pope, cardinals, bishops and other prelates
Pelagius I, Pope - Pope (d. 561)
Pelagius II, Pope - Pope who succeeded Benedict I, when the Lombards were besieging Rome (d. 590)
Pelagius and Pelagianism - Fifth-century heresy which denied original sin as well as Christian grace.
Penal Laws - Treats of the penal legislation affecting Catholics in English-speaking countries since the Reformation.
Penance (as a Virtue) - Penance designates (1) a virtue; (2) a sacrament of the New Law; (3) a canonical punishment inflicted according to the earlier discipline of the Church; (4) a work of satisfaction enjoined upon the recipient of the sacrament.
Penance, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.
Penitentes, Los Hermanos - A society of flagellants existing among the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado.
Pennsylvania - One of the thirteen original United States of America
Pentapolis - The region where stood the five cities of Sodom, Gomorrha, Zoar, Adama and Seboim
Pentateuch - The name of the first five books of the Old Testament.
Pentecost - A feast which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ
Pentecost (Jewish Feast) - The second in importance of the great Jewish feasts.
Pepin the Short - King of the Franks (714-768)
Peppergrass, Paul - Novelist, lecturer, and priest, well known under the assumed name of 'Paul Peppergrass' (1810-1864)
Perfection, Christian and Religious - A thing is perfect in which nothing is wanting of its nature, purpose, or end
Perjury - The crime and sin of taking a false oath
Perpetua and Felicitas, Saints - Martyred at Carthage in 203
Perpetual Adoration - A term broadly used to designate the practically uninterrupted adoration of the Blessed Sacrament
Perpetual Help, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold
Perpetual Succour, Our Lady of - A famous Byzantine-style picture painted on wood, with a background of gold
Perrault, Charles - French writer (1628-1703)
Persecution - The unlawful coercion of another's liberty or his unlawful punishment
Perseverance, Final - The preservation of the state of grace till the end of life
Persia - The history, religion, and civilization of Persia are offshoots from those of Media.
Persian Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Person - Discusses (1) the definition of 'person', especially with reference to the doctrine of the Incarnation; and (2) the use of the word 'persona' and its Greek equivalents in connection with the Trinitarian disputes.
Personality - It is proposed in this article to give an account: (1) of the physical constituents of personality in accordance with the scholastic theory; (2) of concepts of personality that conflict with the theory; (3) of abnormalities of consciousness with reference to their bearing on theories of personality.
Peru - A republic on the west coast of South America, founded in 1821 after the war of independence, having been a Spanish colony.
Perugia - Archdiocese and city in Umbria, central Italy
Pesch, Tilman - Jesuit philosopher (1836-1899)
Pessimism - Term applied in popular language to persons who habitually take a melancholy view of life; or in philosophy, to a system that attempts to account for the presence of evil in the world.
Pestalozzi and Pestalozzianism - One of the greatest pioneers of modern education (1746-1827)
Peter, Basilica of Saint - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay
Peter, Chair of - From the earliest times the Church at Rome celebrated on 18 January the memory of the day when the Apostle held his first service with the faithful of the Eternal City
Peter, Saint - Long article on his life
Peter, Saint, Epistles of - Considers the authenticity, recipients, occasion, object, and date and place of composition of these two epistles
Peter, Tomb of Saint - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter
Peter Canisius, Blessed - Long essay on the Dutch Jesuit priest, who died in 1597
Peter Chrysologus, Saint - Bishop of Ravenna, d. 450. Pious, zealous, and a renowned speaker--thus the name 'Chrysologus'
Peter Claver, Saint - Biography of the Spanish Jesuit priest who for 33 years ministered to African slaves in the New World, and tried to stop the slave trade. Died in 1654
Peter Damian, Saint - Cardinal, Doctor of the Church. Died in 1072. Biographical article
Peter Lombard - Biobibliographical essay on the Master of the Sentences
Peter-Louis-Marie Chanel, Saint - Two articles on the French Marist missionary. Martyred in 1841
Peter of Alcántara, Saint - Spanish Franciscan priest, reformer, and mystic. Died in 1562
Peterspence - The name traditionally given to an annual contribution or tribute (originally of a penny from each landowner) paid to the Holy See by various peoples of Christendom.
Peter the Hermit - Article on a man wrongly named by later writers as the instigator of the Crusades. In later life, Peter founded an abbey. He died in 1115
Petrarch, Francesco - Italian poet and humanist (1304-1374)
Pharao - The title given in Sacred Scripture to the ancient kings of Egypt
Pharisees - A politico-religious sect or faction among the adherents of later Judaism, that came into existence as a class about the third century B.C. . . .
Phenomenalism - Philosophical theories that assert that there is no knowledge other than that of phenomena
Philadelphia (Pennsylvania) - Archdiocese in Pennsylvania, United States
Philemon - A citizen of Colossae, to whom St. Paul addressed a private letter, unique in the New Testament, which bears his name.
Philip the Apostle, Saint - Brief article on this New Testament figure in Scripture and Christian tradition
Philip II (Augustus) - King of France (1165-1223)
Philip II - King of Spain (1527-1598)
Philip IV - King of France (1268-1314)
Philip Romolo Neri, Saint - Biographical article on the Apostle of Rome, who died in 1595
Philippi - Macedonian town on the borders of Thracia
Philippians, Epistle to the - Epistle written by St. Paul to the Christians of Philippi
Philippine Islands - An island nation in the Pacific Ocean
Philistines - Inhabitants of the maritime plain of Palestine from the time of Judges onward
Philo Judæus - Article on his life, writings and doctrine, by Emile Brehier
Philomena, Saint - An article on St. Philomena, whose relics were discovered at the beginning of the nineteenth century
Philosophy - Detailed article on the history of the 'love of wisdom'
Phœnicia - A narrow strip of land, about 30 x 150 miles, shut in between the Mediterranean on the west and the high range of Lebanon on the east
Photinus - Heretic, Galatian, deacon to Marcellus, Metropolitan of Ancyra (d. 376)
Photius of Constantinople - Chief author of the great schism between East and West (b. c. 815)
Phylacteries - Small square cases of leather, worn on the forehead and forearm, used for devotional purposes
Physics, History of - An article on the history and theories of physics
Physiologus - An early Christian work of a popular theological type, describing animals real or fabulous and giving each an allegorical interpretation.
Picture Bibles - In the Middle Ages the Church made use of pictures as a means of instruction, to supplement the knowledge acquired by reading or oral teaching
Pietism - Seventeenth-century Protestant reform movement
Pilar, Nuestra Señora del - 'Our Lady of the Pillar', a celebrated church and shrine, at Saragossa, Spain, containing a miraculous image of the Blessed Virgin
Pilate, Pontius - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord
Pileolus - The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic
Pilgrimage of Grace - A religious rising in the north of England in 1536.
Pilgrimages - Journeys made to some place with the purpose of venerating it, or in order to ask there for supernatural aid, or to discharge some religious obligation.
Pillar of Cloud/Fire - A luminous cloud that accompanied the Israelites during their wandering
Pima Indians - An important tribe of Southern Arizona, centering along the middle Gila and the Salt River.
Pisa, Council of - council held in the fifteenth century to settle the question of the Great Western Schism
Piscataway Indians - The first Indian tribe whose Christianization was attempted under English auspices
Pistoia, Synod of - Held in 1786 by Scipio de' Ricci in an effort to advance Jansenism
Pittsburgh - Diocese in western Pennsylvania in the United States of America
Pius I, Pope Saint - He excommunicated Marcion, and died in about 154
Pius II, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1458 to 1464
Pius III, Pope - Pope who reigned for four weeks in 1503
Pius IV, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1559 to 1565
Pius V, Pope Saint - Biography of the sixteenth-century pontiff
Pius VI, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1775 to 1799
Pius VII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1800 to 1823
Pius VIII, Pope - Pope who reigned from 1829 to 1830
Pius IX, Pope - Biography of this pope, who died in 1878
Pius X, Pope Saint - Long article on the pontiff
Pizarro, Francisco - Concise biographical article on the explorer
Plagues of Egypt - Ten calamities inflicted on the Egyptians to overcome Pharaoh's obstinacy and force him to let the Israelites to leave Egypt
Plain Chant - Description and history of the precursor to Gregorian chant
Plants in the Bible - Discusses all of the types of plants mentioned in the Sacred Scriptures
Plato and Platonism - Greek philosopher (b. c. 428 B.C.)
Plenary Council - A canonical term applied to various kinds of ecclesiastical synods.
Plunket, Blessed Oliver - Biographical article on the professor of theology, Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland, martyred in 1681
Pneumatomachi (Macedonians) - A fourth- and fifth-century heretical sect that denied the divinity of the Holy Ghost
Poetry, Hebrew, of the Old Testament - No one can read attentively the poorest version of the Old Testament without feeling how strong a vein of poetry runs through its pages. . .
Poitiers - Diocese and city in France
Poland - Country in eastern Europe
Polding, John Bede - Archbishop of Sydney (1794-1877)
Pole, Blessed Margaret - Biography of the Countess of Salisbury, martyred in 1541
Pole, Reginald - English cardinal (1500-1558)
Poles in the United States - Covers the causes and history of the Polish immigration
Political Economy, Science of - The social science which treats of man's activities in providing the material means to satisfy his wants
Polo, Marco - Venetian traveller (1251-1324)
Polycarp, Saint - Long article on what we can know about St. Polycarp, from ancient sources. Martyred in 155
Polyglot Bibles - The first Bible which may be considered a Polyglot is that edited at Alcala, Spain, in 1502-17 . . .
Polytheism - The belief in, and consequent worship of, many gods.
Ponce de León, Juan - Concise biographical article on the explorer
Pontian, Pope Saint - He was exiled to the Sardinian mines in 235 and died there of privation
Pontifical Decorations - The titles of nobility, orders of Christian knighthood and other marks of honour and distinction which the papal court confers upon men of unblemished character who have in any way promoted the interests of society, the Church, and the Holy See
Pontifical Mass - The solemn Mass celebrated by a bishop with the ceremonies prescribed in the 'Caeremoniale Episcoporum'
Pontius Pilate - Fifth procurator of Judea (A.D. 26-36) who ordered the crucifixion of Our Lord
Poor, Care of, by the Church - The care of the poor is a branch of charity, which is the exercise of mercy toward one's fellowman rooted in the love of God
Poor, Little Sisters of the - An active, unenclosed religious congregation founded 1839 in Brittany
Poor Clares - The second order of St. Francis
Pope, The - The bishop of Rome, successor of St. Peter, chief of the whole Church, and the Vicar of Christ on earth
Popes, Chronological Lists of the - The historical lists of popes, from those drawn up in the second century to those of the present day, form in themselves a considerable body of literature . . .
Popes, Election of the - The pope becomes chief pastor because he is the Bishop of Rome; he does not become Bishop of Rome because he has been chosen to be head of the universal Church . . .
Popes, List of - In chronological order. Links to a biographical essay on each. For popes up through Pope St. Pius X (d. 1914), entries are taken from the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia. Information on later popes is taken from Joseph Brusher's 'Popes Through the Ages.'
Pope, Alexander - English poet, son of Alexander Pope (1688-1744)
Popular Devotions - Brief explanation of the spiritual practices collectively called 'devotions' or 'popular devotions.'
Population, Theories of - Down to the end of the eighteenth century, very little attention was given to the relation between increase of population and increase of subsistence. . .
Porch (or Vestibule, in Architecture) - A hall projecting in front of the facade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West
Porter - A minor order also called "doorkeeper"
Portiuncula - A town and parish near Assisi, Italy
Porto Rico - More properly spelled 'Puerto Rico'; the smallest and most easterly of the Greater Antilles
Portraits of the Apostles - The earliest fresco representing Christ surrounded by the Apostles dates from the beginning of the fourth century. . .
Portugal - A country on the west side of the Iberian Peninsula
Positivism - A system of philosophical and religious doctrines elaborated by Auguste Comte.
Possession, Demonical - The control of a man's body — though never his soul — from within by evil spirits
Postcommunion - The final prayers of thanksgiving and petition at the end of every Mass
Postulant - A preliminary stage to the novitiate existing from the institution of monasticism.
Poverty - Discusses poverty as a concept and canonical discipline
Poverty and Pauperism - Persons whose existence is dependent for any considerable period upon charitable assistance, whether this assistance be public or private.
Pragmatism - As a tendency in philosophy, signifies the insistence on usefulness or practical consequences as a test of truth.
Pray Brethren - The exhortation addressed by the celebrant to the people before the Secrets in the Roman Mass
Prayer - The raising of the heart and mind to God
Prayer, Lord's - Although the Latin term oratio dominica is of early date, the phrase 'Lord's Prayer' does not seem to have been generally familiar in England before the Reformation. During the Middle Ages the 'Our Father' was always said in Latin, even by the uneducated. Hence it was then most commonly known as the Pater noster
Prayer-Books - A collection of forms of prayer intended for private devotion, and in so far distinct from the 'service books' which contain the liturgical formularies used in public worship.
Prayer of Quiet - A degree of contemplation in which the soul experiences an extraordinary peace and rest
Prayers for the Dead - Catholic teaching regarding prayers for the dead is bound up inseparably with the doctrine of purgatory and the more general doctrine of the communion of the saints, which is an article of the Apostle's Creed
Preachers, Order of - An extensive article about several branches of the Dominicans, including their history
Preadamites - The supposed inhabitants of the earth prior to Adam.
Precept - Precept, in its common acceptation, is opposed to 'counsel', inasmuch as the former imposes an obligation, while the latter is a persuasion
Precious Blood - The blood of our Divine Saviour.
Precious Blood, Congregation of the Most - An association of secular priests living in community, whose principal aim is to give missions and retreats.
Preconization - The ratification in a public consistory of the choice made by a third person of a particular benefice
Predestinarianism - A heresy which reduces the eternal salvation of the elect as well as the eternal damnation of the reprobate to one cause alone, namely to the sovereign will of God, and thereby excludes the free co-operation of man as a secondary factor in bringing about a happy or unhappy future in the life to come.
Predestination - Those divine decrees which have reference to the supernatural end of rational beings, especially of man
Preface - The first part of the Eucharistic prayers in all rites
Prelate - The holder of a prelature
Premonstratensian Canons - Religious order founded in 1120 by St. Norbert
Presbyterianism - One of the groups of ecclesiastical bodies that represent the features of Protestantism emphasized by Calvin.
Presbytery - The part of the church reserved for the higher clergy
Presence, Real - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy
Presence of God - It is of faith that God is present by His essence everywhere and in all things by reason of His 'immensity' . . .
Presentation, Feast of the - Also called: Purification of the Blessed Virgin, Feast of the Presentation of Christ in the Temple
Presentation, Order of the - An order founded at Cork, Ireland
Presentation of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the - According to some apocryphal writings, Mary, at the age of three, was brought by her parents to the Temple, in fulfillment of a vow, there to be educated
Prester John - Name of a legendary Eastern priest and king.
Presumption - A product of pride, and a vice opposed to the theological virtue of hope
Presumption - A term signifying a reasonable conjecture concerning something doubtful, drawn from arguments and appearances, which by the force of circumstances can be accepted as a proof
Pretorium - The building Pilate occupied at the time of Christ's Passion
Pride - The excessive love of one's own excellence.
Priest - The minister of Divine worship and sacrifice
Priest, Assistant - The first and highest in dignity of the ministers who assist the bishop in pontifical functions.
Priest, High - The chief priest in the Old Testament
Priesthood - Brief yet thorough examination of this sacrament
Primacy - The supreme episcopal jurisdiction of the pope as pastor and governor of the Universal Church
Primate - A bishop possessing superior authority, not only over the bishops of his own province, but over several provinces and metropolitans
Prime - Article on the office of Prime, now suppressed
Prior - A monastic superior.
Prioress - A superioress in a monastic community for women
Priory - A monastery whose superior is a prior.
Prisca, Saint - Roman martyr of unknown date
Priscilla and Aquila - Jewish tentmakers, who left Rome in the Jewish persecution under Claudius, 49 or 50, and settled in Corinth
Priscillianism - A heresy that originated in Spain in the fourth century and was derived from the Gnostic-Manichaean doctrines taught by Marcus, an Egyptian from Memphis.
Prisons - Discusses the history of prisons, as well as the influence of Christianity in their development and modern reform
Privilege - A permanent concession made by a legislator outside of the common law
Probabilism - The moral system which holds that, when there is question solely of the lawfulness or unlawfulness of an action, it is permissible to follow a solidly probable opinion in favour of liberty even though the opposing view is more probable.
Processional Cross - A crucifix which is carried at the head of a procession, and which is usually mounted upon a long staff or handle
Processions - Processions, an element in all ceremonial, are to be found, as we should expect, in almost every form of religious worship. . . .
Procopius of Caesarea - Biographical article providing an overview of the historian's life and major writings
Procurator - A person who manages the affairs of another by virtue of a charge received from him.
Profession, Religious - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced
Promise, Divine - Embraces promises made by man to his fellowman, by man to God, and by God to man
Promulgation - The act by which the legislative power makes legislative enactments known to the authorities entrusted with their execution and to the subjects bound to observe them
Proof - The establishment of a disputed or controverted matter by lawful means or arguments.
Propaganda, Sacred Congregation of - The department of the pontifical administration charged with the spread of Catholicism and with the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in non-Catholic countries.
Propagation of the Faith, The Society for the - An international association for the assistance by prayers and alms of Catholic missionary priests, brothers, and nuns engaged in preaching the Gospel in non-Catholic countries.
Property - The person who enjoys the full right to dispose of it insofar as is not forbidden by law
Property, Ecclesiastical - That the Church has the right to acquire and possess temporal goods is a proposition which may now probably be considered an established principle. But though almost self-evident and universally acted upon in practice, this truth has met with many contradictors. . .
Prophecy - Says that in the strict sense, prophecy is the revelation of future events, but points out that in Scripture, prophecy may also be related to the gift of knowledge and sometimes is used to refer to divine inspiration concerning any secret
Prophecy, Prophet, and Prophetess - Discusses prophecy and prophets in the Old and New Testaments
Proselyte - As used in the New Testament, a convert to Judaism
Prosper of Aquitaine, Tiro - Christian writer and disciple of St. Augustine (c. 390-465)
Protasius and Gervasius, Saints - Martyred in Milan, probably in the second century
Protestant Episcopal Church - Protestant denomination born from Anglicanism
Protestantism - Discussion of Protestant beliefs and doctrines
Proverbs, Book of - One of the Sapiential writings of the Old Testament
Providence, Divine - Providence is God Himself considered in that act by which in His wisdom He so orders all events within the universe that the end for which it was created may be realized.
Province, Ecclesiastical - An ecclesiastical administrative district under the jurisdiction of an archbishop.
Provost - An official in a chapter
Prudence - One of the four cardinal virtues
Prussia - The Kingdom of Prussia covers 134,616 square miles and includes about 64.8 per cent of the area of the German Empire.
Psalms - The Psalter, or Book of Psalms, is the first book of the 'Writings', i.e. of the third section of the printed Hebrew Bible of today.
Psalterium - The Book of the Psalms only concerns us here in so far as it was transcribed and used for liturgical purposes. . .
Psychology - The science which treats of the soul and its operations
Psychotherapy - That branch of therapeutics which uses the mind to influence the body
Public Authority - The moral power of command, supported by physical coercion, which the State exercises over its members
Publican - A member or employee of the Roman financial companies who collected the taxes.
Pueblo Indians - Indians of central New Mexico and northeastern Arizona
Pugin, Augustus Welby Northmore - Life and work of the architect
Pulaski, Casimir - Polish-American patriot and soldier (1748-1779)
Pulpit - An elevated stand to preach on
Punishment, Capital - The infliction by due legal process of the penalty of death as a punishment for crime.
Purgative Way - Stages in the spiritual life
Purgatory - A place or condition of temporal punishment for those who, departing this life in God's grace, are, not entirely free from venial faults, or have not fully paid the satisfaction due to their transgressions.
Purgatory, St. Patrick's - This celebrated sanctuary in Donegal dates from the days of St. Patrick . . .
Purim - Jewish feast that commemorates the deliverance of the Jews from Haman
Puritans - In its original meaning it signified those who strove for a worship purified from all taint of Catholicism . . .
Pusey and Puseyism - Anglican divine, patristic scholar, voluminous writer, preacher and controversialist (1800-1882)
Pythagoras and Pythagoreanism - Concise summary of doctrines attributed to Pythagoras
Pyx - Small vessel in which the Holy Eucharist is carried to the sick.

Q

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Quadragesima - Denotes a season of preparation by fasting and prayer, to imitate the example of Christ
Quadratus - Second-century Christian apologist
Quakers - Quakers, an Anglo-American religious sect
Quality - Various definitions of quality and its forms or divisions
Quam singulari - 1910 decree of the Sacred Congregation of the Sacraments on the age at which children are to be admitted to first Communion
Quamichan Indians - Small tribe attached to Cowachan agency, at the southeast end of Vancouver, British Columbia
Quantity - Interpretations of quantity as either a physical or theoretical abstraction
Quapaw Indians - An early tribe from the lower Mississippi region
Quarantines - A strict ecclesiastical penance of forty days
Quaresmius, Franciscus - Seventeenth-century writer and Orientalist (1583-1650)
Quebec, Archdiocese of - Comprises thirteen counties in Canada
Quebec, The Province of - Gives a brief history of this Canadian province and talks about Quebec at the beginning of the twentieth century. Article originally published in 1911
Quelen, Hyacinthe-Louis De - Archbishop of Paris (1778-1839)
Quem terra, pontus, sidera - Ancient hymn in honour of the Blessed Virgin
Queen's Daughters - American religious and charitable society, organized to supplement the work done by the members of the Conference of St. Vincent de Paul
Quercia, Jacopo Della - Italian sculptor (1374-1438)
Querétaro, Diocese of - Located in Mexico; suffragan of Michoacan
Quesnel, Pasquier - French writer (1634-1719)
Quevedo, Juan de - Spanish Franciscan (b. 1519)
Quiche - Principal aboriginal tribe of Guatemala
Quichua Indians - Peruvian and Ecuadoran tribe
Quicumque Christum Quærtis - Opening line of the twelfth and last poem in the 'Cathemerinon' of Prudentius
Quierzy, Councils of - Series of five councils held in a French village between 838 and 858
Quiet, Prayer of - A degree of contemplation in which the soul experiences an extraordinary peace and rest
Quietism - Doctrine which declares that man's highest perfection consists in a sort of psychical self-annihilation and a consequent absorption of the soul into the Divine Essence even during the present life
Quilon, Diocese of - Indian diocese, suffragan of Verapoly
Quimper, Diocese of - French diocese, including the Department of Finistere
Quin, Michael Joseph - Irish journalist (1796-1843)
Quinctianus, Saints - Several saints named Quinctianus appear in martyrologies, but almost nothing is known about most of them
Quiñones, Francis - Spanish Cardinal (1482-1540)
Quinquagesima - The period of fifty days before Easter
Quintana, Agustín - Missionary and Indian philologist (d. 1784)
Quiricus and Julitta - Martyrs in the Diocletian persecution
Quirini, Angelo Maria - Cardinal and scholar (1680-1755)
Quirinus, Saints - Article discusses several saints of this name
Quito, Archdiocese of - Comprises two dioceses and four sees in Ecuador
Qur'an, The - The sacred book of the Muslims, by whom it is regarded as the revelation of God

R

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Rabbi and Rabbinism - Article covering a 1913 Catholic view of Rabbinism
Rabelais, François - Sixteenth-century French writer
Raccolta - A book containing prayers and pious exercises to which the popes have attached indulgences
Race, Human - Article describing the view of the human race from a 1911 Catholic perspective
Race, Negro - Article describing the view of the negro race from a 1911 Catholic perspective
Racine, Jean - Brief biography of the seventeenth-century dramatist
Rail, Altar - The railing which guards the sanctuary and separates the latter from the body of the church. Also called the communion-rail
Ransom, Feast of Our Lady of - Feast on 24 September commemorating the foundation of the Mercedarians
Raphael, Saint - Archangel appearing in the Book of Tobias
Raphael - Italian painter (1483-1520)
Ratio Studiorum - The educational system of the Jesuits
Rationalism - Term used in an exact sense, to designate a particular moment in the development of Protestant thought in Germany, or in a broader, and more usual, sense to cover the view that the human reason, or understanding, is the sole source and final test of all truth
Ratisbonne, Maria Alphonse - Converted Jew who built two convents in Jerusalem (1814-1884)
Ratzinger, Georg - Political economist and social reformer (1844-1899)
Ravenna - Archdiocese based in the capital of a province in Romagna, central Italy
Raymond Lully - Biobibliographical article on Ramon Lull, who is called 'Doctor Illuminatus.'
Raymond Nonnatus, Saint - Spanish Mercedarian (1200-1240)
Raymond of Peñafort, Saint - Born near Barcelona, Raymond was an able canon lawyer who joined the Dominicans. He died in 1275
Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist - Article considers: the fact of the Real Presence; the several allied dogmas grouped about it; and the speculations of reason, so far as speculative investigation regarding the august mystery under its various aspects is permissible, and so far as it is desirable to illumine it by the light of philosophy
Realism, Nominalism, Conceptualism - The theories that have been proposed as solutions of the problem of universals
Reason - Article discussing various definitions of the term
Reason, Age of - The name given to that period of human life at which persons are deemed to begin to be morally responsible
Recollection - Recollection, as understood in respect to the spiritual life, means attention to the presence of God in the soul
Reconciliation, Sacrament of - A sacrament of the New Law instituted by Christ in which forgiveness of sins committed after baptism is granted through the priest's absolution to those who with true sorrow confess their sins and promise to satisfy for the same.
Rector - Priests who preside over missions or quasi-parishes
Recusants, English - People who refrained from attending Church of England services
Red Sea - The north-west arm of the Indian Ocean, some 1400 miles long and lying between Arabia on the east and Africa on the west
Redemption - The restoration of man from the bondage of sin to the liberty of the children of God through the satisfactions and merits of Christ
Redemptorists - Society of missionary priests founded by St. Alphonsus Maria Liguori in 1732 at Scala, Italy
Redi, Francesco - Italian poet (1626-1698)
Reductions of Paraguay - Jesuit campaign to convert the natives of Paraguay
Reformation, The - Sixteenth century religious movement led by Martin Luther
Reformed Churches - Protestant bodies which adopted the tenets of Zwingli and, later, the doctrinal principles of Calvin
Refuge, Cities of - Towns which according to the Jewish law enjoyed the right of asylum and to which anyone who had unintentionally slain another might flee and be protected from the 'avenger of blood'
Refuge, Sisters of Our Lady of Charity of the - Religious order founded in 1641 that works towards reforming women living a life of sin
Regale, Droit de - Document denoting those rights that belonged exclusively to the king
Regalia - The insignia of royalty or 'crown jewels'
Regeneration - Biblico-dogmatic term closely connected with the ideas of justification, Divine sonship, and the deification of the soul through grace
Regina Coeli - The opening words of the Eastertide anthem of the Blessed Virgin
Regis, John Francis, Saint - Jesuit priest and missionary, d. 1640
Reims - Archdiocese of Reims comprising the district of Reims in the Department of Marne and the whole Department of Ardennes
Relativism - A doctrine which denies, universally or in regard to some restricted sphere of being, the existence of absolute values
Relics - An object, notably part of the body or clothes, remaining as a memorial of a departed saint
Religion - The voluntary subjection of oneself to God
Religion, Virtue of - Article discussing the moral value of religion
Religions, Statistics of - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies
Religious Life - Overview and evangelical ideas on what makes up religious life
Religious Profession - Describes both a declaration openly made, and a state of life publicly embraced
Reliquaries - Any box, casket, or shrine destined for the reception of relics
Renaissance, The - Period of revival of classic, especially of Greek, learning and the recovery of ancient art in the departments of sculpture, painting, and architecture
Reni, Guido - Italian painter (1575-1642)
Reordinations - The history of all ordinations which were considered null for any other reason than defect of the prescribed form or intention and which were repeated
Reparation - Theological concept of God demanding satisfaction for the injuries which man had done Him
Repose, Altar of - Sometimes called less properly sepulchre or tomb, more frequently repository
Reputation (as Property) - The outcome of a person's meritorious activity
Requiem, Masses of - Masses that are offered for the dead
Rerum Novarum - The opening words and the title of the Encyclical issued by Leo XIII, 15 May, 1891, on the 'Condition of Labour'
Reserved Cases - A term used for sins whose absolution is not within the power of every confessor
Restitution - An act of commutative justice by which exact reparation as far as possible is made for an injury that has been done to another
Resurrection of Jesus Christ - Resurrection is the rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Resurrection, General - The rising again from the dead, the resumption of life
Retreats - A series of days passed in solitude and consecrated to practices of asceticism, in particular to prayer and penance
Reuben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel
Revelation - The communication of some truth by God to a rational creature through means which are beyond the ordinary course of nature
Revelation, Book of - The name given to the last book in the Bible, also called the Book of Revelation
Revelations, Private - Article discussing the judging of private revelations
Revolution, English - The history of the Revolution resolves itself into a catalogue of various ill-judged measures which alienated the support of the Established Church, the Tory party, and the nation as a whole
Revolution, French - A view of its effect on the Church
Rhode Island - American state and one of the thirteen original colonies
Ricci, Matteo - Founder of the Catholic missions of China (1552-1610)
Rice, Edmund Ignatius - Biographical article on the founder of the Institute of the Brothers of the Christian Schools (better known as the Irish Christian Brothers)
Richard I, King Of England - King who embarked on the Crusades (1157-1199)
Richard de Wyche, Saint - The devoted companion of St. Edmund Rich, was bishop of Chichester. Richard died in 1253, and was canonized less than 10 years later
Richelieu, Armand-Jean du Plessis, Duke de - Cardinal and French statesman (1585-1642)
Right - Substantive designating the object of justice
Right of Exclusion - The alleged competence of the more important Catholic countries, Austria, France, and Spain, to indicate to their respective cardinal protector, or cardinal procurator, those members of the Sacred College who were personae minus gratae, so that, if there was a possibility of one of these becoming pope, the authorized cardinal might, before the decisive ballot, give his veto, in the name of his government, against such election
Ring of the Fisherman, The - Ring worn by the popes, with a representation of St. Peter in a boat on it
Rings - Article discussing religious uses and values concerning the wearing of rings
Rita of Cascia, Saint - Rita married an abusive man, became a mother, was widowed, joined the Augustinians. She died in 1456
Rites - The ceremonies, prayers, and functions of any religious body
Rites in the United States - Article discussing various rites used within the United States
Ritual - One of the official books of the Roman Rite. It contains all the services performed by a priest that are not in the Missal and Breviary and has also, for convenience, some that are in those books
Rizal, José Mercado - Filipino hero, physician, poet, novelist, and sculptor (1861-1896)
Robert, Saint - French Benedictine, founder of the Abbey of Chaise-Dieu, d. 1067
Robert Bellarmine, Saint - Biographical article on the Jesuit theologian and cardinal
Robert of Geneva - Antipope under the name of Clement VII (1342-1394)
Robert of Molesme, Saint - Founder of the Abbey of Citeaux and the monastery at Molesme (d. 1111)
Roch, Saint - Early 14th century. While on pilgrimage, Roch acquired renown for healing plague victims. He himself was stricken with the plague. Upon returning to his hometown, he was cast into prison as an accused spy, where he died
Roche, Alanus de la - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Rochet - An over-tunic usually made of fine white linen (cambric; fine cotton material is also allowed), and reaching to the knees
Rococo Style - A discussion of this whimsical style, its origins and uses
Rodriguez, Saint Alphonsus - Spanish-born widower, Jesuit lay brother, served as porter at Majorca for 46 years, d. 1617. Also known as Alonso
Roger Bacon - Philosopher, born at Ilchester, Somersetshire, about 1214; died at Oxford, perhaps 11 June, 1294
Rolle de Hampole, Richard - English solitary and writer. Article on his life and writings
Roman Catacombs - The subject is covered under the headings: I. Position; II. History; III. Inscriptions; IV. Paintings; V. Sarcophagi; VI. Small Objects Found in the Catacombs; and VII. Catacombs outside Rome
Roman Catechism - This catechism differs from other summaries of Christian doctrine for the instruction of the people in two points: it is primarily intended for priests having care of souls (ad parochos), and it enjoys an authority equalled by no other catechism
Roman Catholic - A qualification of the name Catholic commonly used in English-speaking countries by those unwilling to recognize the claim of being the One True Church
Roman Christian Cemeteries, Early - This article treats briefly of the individual catacomb cemeteries in the vicinity of Rome
Roman Congregations - The most important of certain departments organized by the Holy See at various times to assist it in the transaction of those affairs which canonical discipline and the individual interests of the faithful bring to Rome
Roman Curia - Strictly speaking, the ensemble of departments or ministries which assist the sovereign pontiff in the government of the Universal Church
Roman Rite, The - The manner of celebrating the Holy Sacrifice, administering Sacraments, reciting the Divine Office, and performing other ecclesiastical functions as used in the city and Diocese of Rome
Romans, Epistle to the - The subject is treated under the following heads: I. The Roman Church and St. Paul; II. Character, Contents, and Arrangement of the Epistle; III. Authenticity; IV. Integrity; V. Date and Circumstances of Composition; VI. Historical Importance; VII, Theological Contents: Faith and Works (Paul and James)
Romanus, Saints - Mentions and gives brief profiles of several saints of this name
Romanus, Pope - Ninth-century Pope who reigned for four months in 897
Rome - The significance of Rome lies primarily in the fact that it is the city of the pope
Romuald, Saint - Italian-born founder of the Camaldolese, d. 1027
Romulus Augustulus - Deposed in the year 476, the last emperor of the Western Roman Empire
Rood - A term, often used to signify the True Cross itself, which, with the prefix Holy, occurs as the dedication of some churches
Roper, William - English politician and biographer of St. Thomas More (1496-1578)
Rorate Coeli - Vulgate, text, the opening words of Isaiah 45:8
Rosalia, Saint - Hermitess, greatly venerated at Palermo and in the whole of Sicily of which she is patroness
Rosary, The - History of this devotion. Also considers the Orthodox and Eastern-Rite Catholic practice
Rosary, Confraternity of the - The Perpetual Rosary is an organization for securing the continuous recitation of the Rosary by day and night among a number of associates who perform their allotted share at stated times
Rosary, Feast of the Holy - At the request of the Dominican Order Gregory XIII in 1573 allowed this feast to be kept in all churches which possessed an altar dedicated to the Holy Rosary
Rosary, Seraphic - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Rose of Lima, Saint - Biographical article on the first American to be named a saint
Rose of Viterbo, Saint - Third order Franciscan, preached repentance. She died at the age of 17, in 1252
Rose Window - A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled with stained glasses
Rosh Hashanah - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year
Rosicrucians - The original appelation of the alleged members of the occult-cabalistic-theosophic 'Rosicrucian Brotherhood', described in the pamphlet 'Fama Fraternitatis R.C.'
Rosmini and Rosminianism - Antonio Rosmini Serbati, philosopher, and founder of the Institute of Charity, born 24 March, 1797, at Rovereto, Austrian Tyrol; died 1 July, 1855, at Stresa, Italy
Rossini, Gioacchino Antonio - Article focusing on his musical innovations and his church music
Roswitha - A celebrated nun-poetess of the tenth century, whose name has been given in various forms, Roswitha, Hrotswitha, Hrosvitha, and Hrotsuit; born probably between 930 and 940, died about 1002
Rota, Sacra Romana - One of three tribunals instituted by the 'Sapienti Consilio' constitution of 1908
Rouen, Archdiocese of - Revived by the Concordat of 1802 with the Sees of Bayeux, Evreux, and Seez as suffragans: it also includes the Department of the Seine Inferieure
Rousseau, Jean-Baptiste - French poet (1670-1741)
Royal Declaration, The - The name most commonly given to the solemn repudiation of Catholicity which, in accordance with provisions of the 'Bill of Rights' (1689) and of 'the Act of Succession' (1700), every sovereign succeeding to the throne of Great Britain was required to make in the presence of the assembled Lords and Commons
Ruben - Proper name meaning both a patriarch and a tribe of Israel
Rubens, Peter Paul - Flemish painter (1577-1640)
Rubrics - Among the ancients, according to Columella, Vitruvius, and Pliny, the word rubrica, rubric, signified the red earth used by carpenters to mark on wood the line to follow in cutting it; according to Juvenal the same name was applied to the red titles under which the jurisconsults arranged the announcements of laws
Rule of Faith, The - The word rule (Lat. regula, Gr. kanon) means a standard by which something can be tested, and the rule of faith means something extrinsic to our faith, and serving as its norm or measure
Rule of St. Augustine - Names the five documents sometimes identified as the Rule of Augustine, quickly narrows the field to two contenders, settles on Letter 211. Also deals with Augustine's relation to monasticism
Rule of St. Benedict - Lengthy article on the text of the Rule and its composition, some analysis, and practical application
Rumania - A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Pruth
Rupe, Alanus de - Dominican promoter of the Rosary (1428-1475)
Russia - Geography and history
Russia, The Religion of - There are two theories in regard to the early Christianity of Russia; according to one of them, Russia was Catholic from the times when she embraced Christianity until the twelfth century; the other holds that Russia was always Orthodox
Russian Language and Literature - Russian is a Slav language belonging to the Indo-European family
Ruth, Book of - One of the proto-canonical writings of the Old Testament
Ruthenian Rite - There is no separate and distinct rite for the Ruthenians, but the name is often used for the modifications which the Ruthenians have introduced in the Byzantine or Greek Rite
Ruthenians - A Slavic people from Southern Russia, Galicia and Bukowina in Austria, and North-eastern Hungary
Ruysbroeck, Blessed John - Article on the Admirable Doctor, 'undoubtedly the foremost of the Flemish mystics,' author, who died in 1381

S

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Saba and Sabeans - This Saba (Sheba) must not be confounded with Saba (Seba) in Ethiopia of Is., xliii, 3; xlv, 14. It lies in the Southern Arabian Jof about 200 miles north-west of Aden
Sabaoth - In Hebrew, plural form of 'host' or 'army'. The word is used almost exclusively in conjunction with the Divine name as a title of majesty: 'the Lord of Hosts', or 'the Lord God of Hosts'
Sabbatarians, Sabbatarianism - Defines Sabbatarianism as a rigorist conflation of the Christian Sunday with the Jewish Sabbath, devotes attention to Seventh-Day Sabbatarianism as well
Sabbath - The seventh day of the week among the Hebrews, the day being counted from sunset to sunset, that is, from Friday evening to Saturday evening
Sabbatical Year - The seventh year, devoted to cessation of agriculture, and holding in the period of seven years a place analogous to that of the Sabbath in the week; also called 'Year of Remission'
Sabbatine Privilege - The name Sabbatine Privilege is derived from the apocryphal Bull 'Sacratissimo uti culmine' of John XXII, 3 March, 1322
Sabina, Saint - Martyr in 126 or 127, at Rome
Sabinianus, Pope - Reigned 604-606. The son of Bonus, he was born at Blera (Bieda) near Viterbo. In 593 he was sent by St. Gregory I as apocrisiarius or Apostolic nuncio to Constantinople; but in some respects his administration of the office did not come up to Gregory's expectations
Sacramentals - In instituting the sacraments Christ did not determine the matter and form down to the slightest detail, leaving this task to the Church, which should determine what rites were suitable in the administration of the sacraments. These rites are indicated by the word Sacramentalia, the object of which is to manifest the respect due to the sacrament and to secure the sanctification of the faithful
Sacraments - Presents the necessity, the nature, the origin and cause, the number, the effects, the minister, and the recipient of the Sacraments
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Devotion to the - Description, spiritual significance, and historical background of devotion to the Sacred Heart
Sacred Heart of Jesus, Society of the - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education
Sacrifice - This term is identical with the English offering (Latin offerre) and the German Opfer
Sacrifice of the Mass - The word Mass (missa) first established itself as the general designation for the Eucharistic Sacrifice in the West after the time of Pope Gregory the Great, the early Church having used the expression the 'breaking of bread' (fractio panis) or 'liturgy'
Sacrilege - The violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. In a less proper sense any transgression against the virtue of religion would be a sacrilege
Sacris Solemniis - The opening words of the hymn for Matins of Corpus Christi and of the Votive Office of the Most Blessed Sacrament, composed by St. Thomas Aquinas
Sacristan - An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers (ostiarii), later by the mansionarii and the treasurers
Sacristy - A room in the church or attached thereto, where the vestments, church furnishings and the like, sacred vessels, and other treasures are kept, and where the clergy meet and vest for the various ecclesiastical functions
Sadducees - A politico-religious sect of the Jews during the late post-Exile and New-Testament period. The old derivation of the name from tsaddiqim, i.e. the righteous; with assumed reference to the adherence of the Sadducees to the letter of the Law as opposed to the pharasaic attention to the superadded 'traditions of the elders', is now generally discredited
Sahagún, Bernardino de - Missionary and Aztec archeologist, b. at Sahagun, Kingdom of Leon, Spain, in or before the year 1500; d. at Mexico, 23 Oct., 1590
Saint Bartholomew's Day Massacre - This massacre of which Protestants were the victims occurred in Paris on 24 August, 1572 (the feast of St. Bartholomew), and in the provinces of France during the ensuing weeks, and it has been the subject of knotty historical disputes
Saint Benedict, Medal of - A medal, originally a cross, dedicated to the devotion in honour of St. Benedict
Saint-Denis, Abbey of - Situated in a small town to which it has given its name, about four miles north of Paris
Saint George, Orders of - Knights of St. George appear at different historical periods and in different countries as mutually independent bodies having nothing in common but the veneration of St. George, the patron of knighthood
Saint James of Compostela, Order of - Founded in the twelfth century, owes its name to the national patron of Spain, St. James the Greater
Saint-John, Ambrose - Oratorian; b. 1815; d. at Edgbaston, Birmingham, 24 May, 1875; son of Henry St. John, descended from the Barons St. John of Bletsoe
Saint John - Diocese in the Province of New Brunswick, Canada
Saint Louis (Missouri) - Created a diocese 2 July, 1826; raised to the rank of an archdiocese 20 July, 1847
Saint Paul (Minnesota) - Archdiocese comprising the counties of Ramsey, Hennepin, Chisago, Anoka, Dakota, Scott, Wright, Rice, Lesueur, Carver, Nicollet, Sibley, Meeker, Redwood, Renville, Kandiyohi, Lyon, Lincoln, Yellow Medicine, Lac-Qui-Parle, Chippewa, Swift, Goodhue, Big Stone, and Brown, which stretch across the State of Minnesota from east to west, in about the center of its southern half
Saint Paul-without-the Walls - An abbey nullius. As early as 200 the burial place of the great Apostle in the Via Ostia was marked by a cella memoriae, near which the Catacomb of Comodilla was established
Saint Peter, Basilica of - The present Church of St. Peter stands upon the site where at the beginning of the first century the gardens of Agrippina lay
Saint Peter, Tomb of - The history of the confusion and conflicting authorities surrounding the location of the tomb of Saint Peter
Saint-Simon and Saint-Simonism - Claude Henri de Rouvroy, Comte de Saint-Simon, was born in Paris, 17 Oct., 1760; died there, 19 May, 1825. He belonged to the family of the author of the 'Memoirs'
Saint-Sulpice, Society of - Founded at Paris by M. Olier (1642) for the purpose of providing directors for the seminaries established by him
Saint Vincent de Paul, Society of - International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor
Sainte Anne d'Auray - A little village three miles from the town of Auray, in the Diocese of Vannes, famous for its sanctuary and for its pilgrimages, or pardons, in honour of St. Anne
Sainte Anne de Beaupré - Devotion to Saint Anne, in Canada
Saints, Canonization of - According to some writers the origin in the Catholic Church is to be traced back to the ancient pagan apotheosis
Saints, Communion of - The doctrine expressed in the second clause of the ninth article in the received text of the Apostles' Creed: 'I believe... the Holy Catholic Church, the Communion of Saints'
Saints, Legends of the - The legenda are stories about the saints, and often include a mix of historical fact and unhistorical embellishments
Salamis, Epiphanius of - Biographical article on the fourth-century monk and bishop
Salesian Society, The - Founded by Saint John Bosco, takes its distinctive name from its patron, Saint Francis de Sales
Salle, Saint John Baptist de la - Essay on the founder of the Christian Brothers
Salome - Daughter of Herod Philip and Herodias at whose request John the Baptist was beheaded
Salt - Always used for the seasoning of food and for the preservation of things from corruption, had from very early days a sacred and religious character
Salvation - Salvation has in Scriptural language the general meaning of liberation from straitened circumstances or from other evils, and of a translation into a state of freedom and security
Salve Regina - The opening words (used as a title) of the most celebrated of the four Breviary anthems of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Salzburg - The Archdiocese of Salzburg is conterminous with the Austrian crown-land of the same name
Samaria - A titular see, suffragan of Caesarea in Palestine Prima. In the sixth year of his reign (about 900 B. C.) Amri, King of Israel, laid the foundations of the city to which he gave the name of Samaria, 'after the name of Semer the owner of the hill'
Samson - Most famous of the Judges of Israel
Samuel, First and Second Books of - Known as the First and Second Books of Kings in the Authorized Version, in the Hebrew editions and the Protestant versions these are known as 1st and 2nd Samuel, with the Third and Fourth Books of Kings being styled First and Second Books of Kings
Sanhedrin - The supreme council and court of justice among the Jews
Sanctifying Grace - Treatise on this fundamental building block of Christianity
Sanctity - Explains the meaning of the term 'sanctity' as employed in somewhat different senses in relation to God, to individual men, and to a corporate body
Sanctuary - A consecrated place of refuge
Sanctuary - Church architecture term
Sanctus - The Sanctus is the last part of the Preface in the Mass, sung in practically every rite by the people (or choir). One of the elements of the liturgy of which exists the earliest evidence
San Francisco - Archdiocese established 29 July 1853 to include multiple counties in the State of California, U.S.A
Santa Casa di Loreto - Since the fifteenth century, and possibly even earlier, the 'Holy House' of Loreto has been numbered among the most famous shrines of Italy
Sara - Wife of Abraham and also his step-sister
Sarto, Andrea del - Artist - Born at Florence in 1486; d. there in 1531
Sarum Rite - The manner of regulating the details of the Roman Liturgy that obtained in pre-Reformation times in the south of England and was thence propagated over the greater part of Scotland and of Ireland
Saskatchewan and Alberta - The twin provinces of the Canadian West, so called because they were formed on the same day
Satan - The name commonly given to the fallen angels, who are also known as demons. With the article (ho) it denotes Lucifer, their chief, as in Matthew 25:41, 'the Devil and his angels'
Saul - First king of Israel
Savonarola, Girolamo - Dominican reformer. Born at Ferrara, 21 September, 1452; died at Florence, 23 May, 1498
Saxe-Coburg and Gotha - One of the Saxon-Thuringian duchies
Saxony - Chronology of the area and the people
Scala Sancta (Holy Stairs) - Consisting of twenty-eight white marble steps, at Rome, near the Lateran; according to tradition the staircase leading once to the praetorium of Pilate at Jerusalem, hence sanctified by the footsteps of Our Lord during his Passion
Scalimoli - Theologian, better known by his religious name, Anrea di Castellana
Scandal - A word or action evil in itself, which occasions another's spiritual ruin
Scapular - The most important part, of the habit of the monastic orders
Scaramelli, Giovanni Battista - Ascetical writer, b. at Rome, 24 Nov., 1687; d. at Macerata, 11 Jan., 1752
Scepticism - Etymology of the word based on a Greek term meaning 'speculation, doubt'
Schall von Bell, Johann Adam - An especially prominent figure among the missionaries to China, b. of an important family at Cologne in 1591; d. at Peking, 15 Aug., 1666
Scheeben, Matthias Joseph - Theological writer of acknowledged merit, born at Meckenheim near Bonn, 1 March, 1835; died at Cologne, 21 July, 1888
Scherer, Georg - Pulpit orator and controversialist, b. at Schwaz, in the Tyrol, 1540, according to Duhr; d. at Linz, 30 Nov., 1605; entered the Society of Jesus in 1559
Schism - In the language of theology and canon law, the rupture of ecclesiastical union and unity
Schism, Eastern - From the time of Diotrephes (III John 1:9-10) there have been continual schisms, of which the greater number were in the East
Schism, Western - Only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance
Schola Cantorum - A place for the teaching and practice of ecclesiastical chant, or a body of singers banded together for the purpose of rendering the music in church
Scholasticism - A term used to designate both a method and a system. It is applied to theology as well as to philosophy
Schönborn - The name of a German noble family, many members of which were prelates of the Church
Schools - History and development of education as related to the church
Schubert, Franz - Composer (1797-1829)
Schwann, Theodor - German physiologist and founder of the theory of the cellular structure of animal organisms; b. at Neuss, 7 December, 1810; d. Cologne, 11 January, 1882
Science and the Church - Dicsusses the relationship between the two subjects
Scotism and Scotists - Article on the school of philosophy inspired by John Duns Scotus, and its proponents in the fourteenth through nineteenth centuries
Scotland - The northern portion of the Island of Great Britain
Scotland, Established Church of - The religious organization which has for three centuries and a half claimed the adherence of the majority of the inhabitants of Scotland, may be said to date from August 1560
Scotus, Blessed John Duns - Called 'Doctor Subtilis,' Franciscan, philosopher, d. 1308
Scribes - In the New-Testament period the scribes were the professional interpreters of the Law in the Jewish synagogues
Scriptorium - A large room set apart in a monastery for the use of the scribes or copyists of the community
Scripture - Sacred Scripture is one of the several names denoting the inspired writings which make up the Old and New Testament
Scruple - An unfounded apprehension and consequently unwarranted fear that something is a sin which, as a matter of fact, is not
Scrutiny - Definitions for the term as variously employed in canon law
Sculpture - In the widest sense of the term, sculpture is the art of representing in bodily form men, animals, and other objects in stone, bronze, ivory, clay and similar materials
Seal - The use of a seal by men of wealth and position was common before the Christian era. It was natural then that high functionaries of the Church should adopt the habit as soon as they became socially and politically important
Seal of Confession, the Law of the - 'Let the priest who dares to make known the sins of his penitent be deposed....'
Sebastian, Saint - Article on this Roman martyr of the late third or early fourth century
Secret - The prayer said in a low voice by the celebrant at the end of the Offeratory in the Roman Liturgy
Secret, Discipline of the - A theological term used to express the custom which prevailed in the earliest ages of the Church, by which the knowledge of the more intimate mysteries of the Christian religion was carefully kept from the heathen and even from those who were undergoing instruction in the Faith
Sect and Sects - Etymology and meaning of the word 'sect'
Secularism - A term used for the first time about 1846 by George Jacob Holyoake to denote 'a form of opinion which concerns itself only with questions, the issues of which can be tested by the experience of this life'
Secularization - An authorization given to religious with solemn vows and by extension to those with simple vows to live for a time or permanently in the 'world'
Secular Clergy - The secular cleric makes no profession and follows no religious rule
Sedia Gestatoria - The Italian name of the portable papal throne used on certain solemn occasions in the pontifical ceremonies
Seduction - The inducing of a previously virtuous woman to engage in unlawful sexual intercourse
Self-Defense - The right of a private person to employ force against any one who unjustly attacks his life or person, his property or good name
Semiarians and Semiarianism - A name frequently given to the conservative majority in the East in the fourth century as opposed to the strict Arians
Seminary, Ecclesiastical - The word seminary (Fr. seminaire, Ger. Seminar) is sometimes used, especially in Germany, to designate a group of university students devoted to a special line of work. The same word is often applied in England and the United States to young ladies' academies, Protestant or Catholic
Semipelagianism - A doctrine of grace advocated by monks of Southern Gaul at and around Marseilles after 428
Semites - The term Semites is applied to a group of peoples closely related in language, whose habitat is Asia and partly Africa
Seneca Indians - The westernmost and largest of the five tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy of central and western New York
Sentence - In canon law, the decision of the court upon any issue brought before it
Septimius Severus - Founder of the African dynasty of Roman emperors
Septuagesima - The ninth Sunday before Easter, the third before Lent known among the Greeks as 'Sunday of the Prodigal'
Septuagint Version - The first translation of the Hebrew Old Testament, made into popular Greek before the Christian era
Sepulchre, Holy - The tomb in which the Body of Jesus Christ was laid after His death upon the Cross
Seraphic Crown - Also known as the Seraphic Rosary. Brief history, general description of how one prays this chaplet
Seraphim - A Hebrew masculine plural form, designates a special class of heavenly attendants of Yahweh's court
Sergius and Bacchus - Soldiers, martyred in the Diocletian persecution in about 303. Universally venerated in the East
Sergius I, Pope Saint - Reigned 687-701
Sergius II, Pope - Reigned 844-847
Sergius III, Pope - Reigned 904-911
Sergius IV, Pope - Reigned 1009-1012
Serra, Junípero - Biography of the famed Franciscan priest, missionary to Mexico and California, who died in 1784
Servants of Mary (Order of Servites) - Order founded on the feast of the Assumption, 1233 when the Blessed Virgin appeared to seven noble Florentines
Servia - A European kingdom in the north-western part of the Balkan peninsula
Servites, Order of - The fifth mendicant order, the objects of which are the sanctification of its members, preaching the Gospel, and the propagation of devotion to the Mother of God, with special reference to her sorrows
Servus servorum Dei - 'Servant of the servants of God', a title given by the popes to themselves in documents of note
Seton, Saint Elizabeth Ann - Biography of the founder of the Sisters of Charity in the United States
Seven Deacons - The seven men elected by the whole company of the original Christian community at Jerusalem and ordained by the Apostles, their office being chiefly to look after the poor and the common agape
Seven Sleepers of Ephesus, The - One of the many examples of the legend about a man who falls asleep and years after wakes up to find the world changed
Severinus, Pope - Reigned May-August 640,
Seville - Archdiocese in Spain
Sext - Article on the midday office
Sexton - One who guards the church edifice, its treasures, vestments, etc., and as an inferior minister attends to burials, bell-ringings and similar offices about a church
Shakespeare, Religion of - Thesis regarding the faith of the bard
Shamanism - A vague term used by explorers of Siberia in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries to designate not a specific religion but a form of savage magic or science, by which physical nature was believed to be brought under the control of man
Shem - Son of Noe
Sheridan, Philip Henry - General, U.S. Army. Born at Albany, N.Y., U.S.A., 6 March, 1831; died at Nonquitt, Mass, 5 August, 1888
Shrines of Our Lady and the Saints in Great Britain and Ireland - Location and origins of shrines
Shroud of Turin - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ
Shrovetide - Some history behind Carnival
Shuswap Indians - A tribe of Salishan linguistic stock, the most important of that group in British Columbia, formerly holding a large territory on middle and upper Thompson River, including Shuswap, Adams, and Quesnel Lakes
Siam - Siam, 'the land of the White Elephant' or the country of the Muang Thai (the Free)
Sibylline Oracles - The name given to certain collections of supposed prophecies, emanating from the sibyls or divinely inspired seeresses, which were widely circulated in antiquity
Sicilian Vespers - The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou
Sicily - The largest island in the Mediterranean
Sick, Anointing of the - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Siena - Archdiocese in Tuscany (Central Italy)
Sign of the Cross - A term applied to various manual acts, liturgical or devotional in character, which have this at least in common: that by the gesture of tracing two lines intersecting at right angles they indicate symbolically the figure of Christ's cross
Sikhism - The religion of a warlike sect of India, having its origin in the Punjab and its centre in the holy City of Amritsar, where their sacred books are preserved and worshipped
Silence - All writers on the spiritual life uniformly recommend, nay, command under penalty of total failure, the practice of silence
Silesia - The largest province of Prussia
Silverius, Pope Saint - Son of Pope St. Hormisdas. Named pope while yet a subdeacon, to thwart the Monophysites. Exiled through a forgery of his political and religious enemies, died of starvation in prison, probably in 537
Silvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592
Simeon - The second son of Jacob by Lia and patronymic ancestor of the Jewish tribe bearing that name
Simeon, Holy - The 'just and devout' man of Jerusalem who according to the narrative of St. Luke, greeted the infant Saviour on the occasion of His presentation in the Temple
Simeon, Canticle of - The Canticle of Simeon found in Luke 2:29-32
Simeon Stylites the Elder, Saint - First and most famous of the hermits whose asceticism involved living atop a pillar. Died in 459
Simon the Apostle, Saint - Also known as Simon the Zealot
Simon Magus - According to the testimony of St. Justin, Simon came from Gitta in the country of the Samaritans
Simon Peter - Long article on his life
Simon Stock, Saint - Biography of the English Carmelite, sixth general of the Order. Associated with the brown scapular. Died 1265
Simony - Usually defined 'a deliberate intention of buying or selling for a temporal price such things as are spiritual of annexed unto spirituals'
Simplicius, Pope Saint - Reigned 468-483; date of birth unknown; died 10 March, 483
Sin - A moral evil
Sinai - The mountain on which the Mosaic Law was given
Sinaiticus, Codex - A Greek manuscript of the Old and New Testaments, of the greatest antiquity and value; found on Mount Sinai, in St. Catherine's Monastery, by Constantine Tischendorf
Sioux Indians - Provides information about their history, language, population, culture and religion
Sirach, Book of - The longest of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible, and the last of the Sapiential writings in the Vulgate of the Old Testament
Siricius, Pope Saint - Siricius condemned Jovinian, but this did not spare the pope from criticism by St. Jerome
Sisinnius, Pope - Successor of John VII, he was consecrated probably 15 January, 708, and died after a brief pontificate of about three weeks; he was buried in St. Peter's
Sisters of Charity of Cincinnati, Ohio - On 27 October, 1829, at the request of Bishop Fenwick of Cincinnati, several sisters from Mother Seton's community at Emmitsburg, Maryland, opened an orphanage, parochial school, and academy on Sycamore Street opposite the old cathedral, then occupying the present site of St. Xavier's Church and college
Sistine Choir - With the building by Sixtus IV (1471-84) of the church for the celebration of all papal functions since known as the Sistine Chapel, the original schola cantorum and subsequent capella pontificia or capella papale, which still retains more or less of the guild character, becomes the capella sistina, or Sistine Choir
Six Days of Creation - Signifies a term of six days, or, technically, the history of the six days' work of creation, as contained in the first chapter of Genesis
Sixtus I, Pope Saint - Martyr, reigned for ten years in the very early part of the second century
Sixtus II, Pope Saint - This is the St. Sixtus who is commemorated in the Eucharistic Prayer. Pope who was one of the first martyrs of the Valerian persecution, in 258
Sixtus III, Pope Saint - Reigned 432-440
Sixtus IV, Pope - Born near Abisola, 21 July, 1414; died 12 Aug., 1484
Sixtus V, Pope - Born at Grottamare near Montalto, 13 December, 1521; elected 24 April, 1585; crowned 1 May, 1585; died in the Quirinal, 27 August, 1590
Slander - The attributing to another of a fault of which one knows him to be innocent
Slavery and Christianity - Discusses the history
Slavery, Ethical Aspect of - In Greek and Roman civilization slavery on an extensive scale formed an essential element of the social structure; and consequently the ethical speculators, no less than the practical statesmen, regarded it as a just and indispensable institution
Slavonic Language and Liturgy - Although the Latin holds the chief place among the liturgical languages in which the Mass is celebrated and the praise of God recited in the Divine Offices, yet the Slavonic language comes next to it among the languages widely used throughout the world in the liturgy of the Church
Slavs, The - Customary name for all the Slavonic races
Slavs in America - History of ethnic Slavs migrating to the U.S
Sloth - One of the seven capital sins. In general it means disinclination to labour or exertion
Smalkaldic League - A politico-religious alliance formally concluded on 27 Feb., 1531, at Smalkalden in Hesse-Nassau, among German Protestant princes and cities for their mutual defence
Smyrna - The capital of the vilayet of Aïdin and the starting-point of several railways
Snorri Sturluson - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241
Sobieski, John - Born at Olesko in 1629; died at Wilanow, 1696; son of James, Castellan of Cracow and descended by his mother from the heroic Zolkiewski, who died in battle at Cecora
Social Contract, The - Includes contents and critique
Socialism - A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution
Societies, Secret - A designation of which the exact meaning has varied at different times
Society - Implies fellowship, company, and has always been conceived as signifying a human relation
Society of Jesus, The - Comprehensive information about the past of the Jesuit order
Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus, The - An institution of religious women, taking perpetual vows and devoted to the work of education
Sociology - The claims of sociology to a place in the hierarchy of sciences are subjected to varied controversy. It has been held that there is no distinct problem for a science of sociology, no feature of human society not already provided for in the accepted social sciences
Socinianism - The body of doctrine held by one of the numerous Antitrinitarian sects to which the Reformation gave birth
Socrates - Fourth-century Church historian
Socrates - Greek philosopher (469-399 B.C.)
Sodality - It would not be possible to give a definition making a clear distinction between the sodalities and other confraternities; consequently the development and history of the sodalities are the same as those of the religious confraternities
Sodality (Confraternity) - A voluntary association of the faithful, established and guided by competent ecclesiastical authority for the promotion of special works of Christian charity or piety
Sodom and Gomorrha - They were situated in 'the country about the Jordan' (Gen., xiii, 10); their exact location is unknown
Soissons - Includes, with the exception of two hamlets, the entire Department of Aisne
Solemnity - The word solemnity is here used to denote the amount of intrinsic or extrinsic pomp with which a feast is celebrated
Solicitation - Technically in canon law the crime of making use of the Sacrament of Penance, directly or indirectly, for the purpose of drawing others into sins of lust
Solomon - The second son of David by his wife Bathsheba, and the acknowledged favourite of his father
Solomon, Psalms of - Eighteen apocryphal psalms, extant in Greek, probably translated from a Hebrew, or an Aramaic original, commonly assigned to the first century B.C
Song, Religious - The general designation given to the numerous poetical and musical creations which have come into existence in the course of time and are used in connection with public Divine worship, but which are not included in the official liturgy on account of their more free and subjective character
Son of God - Includes uses from the Old and New Testaments
Son of Man - Several instances of its use are detailed
Sophists - A group of Greek teachers who flourished at the end of the fifth century B.C
Sophonias - The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament; preached and wrote in the second half of the seventh century B.C
Sorin, Edward - The founder of Notre Dame, Indiana; b. 6 Feb., 1814, at Ahuille, near Laval, France; d. 31 Oct., 1893, at Notre Dame, U.S.A
Sorrows of the Blessed Virgin Mary, Feast of the Seven - The object of these feats is the spiritual martyrdom of the Mother of God and her compassion with the sufferings of her Divine Son
Soter and Caius, Saints - Popes, having their feast together on 22 April
Soul - The question of the reality of the soul and its distinction from the body is among the most important problems of philosophy, for with it is bound up the doctrine of a future life
Soul, Faculties of the - Article covers the meaning and classification
South Carolina - One of the thirteen original colonies of the United States
Southwell, Venerable Robert - Biography of the English poet, Jesuit, and martyr. He was hanged in 1595
Sozomen, Salaminius Hermias - One of the famous historians of the early Church, born at Bethelia, a small town near Gaza in Palestine
Space - The idea of space is one of the most important in the philosophy of the material world; for centuries it has preoccupied and puzzled philosophers and psychologists
Spain - This name properly signifies the whole peninsula which forms the south-western extremity of Europe. Since the political separation of Portugal, however, the name has gradually come to be restricted to the largest of the four political divisions of the Peninsula: (1) Spain; (2) Portugal; (3) the Republic of Andorra; (4) the British possession of Gibraltar, at the southern extremity
Spallanzani - A distinguished eighteenth-century scientist, b. at Scadiano in Modena, Italy, 10 January, 1729; d. at Pavia, 12 February, 1799
Spanish-American Literature - The literature produced by the Spanish-speaking peoples of Mexico, Central America, Cuba and adjacent islands, and of South America with the notable exceptions of Brazil (whose speech is Portuguese) and the Guianas
Spanish Armada, The - A fleet intended to invade England and to put an end to the long series of English aggressions against the colonies and possessions of the Spanish Crown
Spanish Language and Literature - As a medium of literary expression Spanish asserted itself first in the twelfth century: it had been six or seven centuries in the process of evolution out of Latin
Species - In scholastic terminology, species is the necessary determinant of every cognitive process
Speculation - A term used with reference to business transactions to signify the investing of money at a risk of loss on the chance of unusual gain
Spinoza, Benedict - Belonged to a family of Jewish merchants of moderate means, and was originally called Baruch. Born at Amsterdam, 24 Nov., 1632; died at The Hague, 21 Feb., 1677
Spire - A tapering construction in plan conical, pyramidal, octagonal, or hexagonal crowning a steeple or tower
Spirit - Used in several different but allied senses: (1) as signifying a living, intelligent, incorporeal being, such as the soul; (2) as the fiery essence or breath (the Stoic pneuma) which was supposed to be the universal vital force; (3) as signifying some refined form of bodily substance, a fluid believed to act as a medium between mind and the grosser matter of the body
Spirit, Holy - The doctrine of the Catholic Church concerning the Holy Ghost forms an integral part of her teaching on the mystery of the Holy Trinity
Spiritism - History and methods of Spiritism (here distinguished from Spiritualism) and the dangers inherent in its practice and beliefs
Spiritual Direction - Personal guidance according to individual needs. Criticizes excesses at both ends of the spectrum: heavyhanded directors, and people who think that since they have the Holy Spirit they have no need of human help
Spiritual Exercises of Saint Ignatius - A short work composed by St. Ignatius of Loyola and written originally in Spanish
Spiritualism - The term has been frequently used to denote the belief in the possibility of communication with disembodied spirits, and the various devices employed to realize this belief in practice
Spoons, Apostle - A set of thirteen spoons, usually silver, the handles of which are adorned with representations of Our Lord (the Master spoon) and the twelve Apostles
Sri Lanka - An island to the south-east of India and separated from it only by a chain of reefs and sand-banks called Adam's Bridge
Stabat Mater - The opening words of two companion hymns, one of which (Stabat Mater Dolorosa) is in liturgical use, while the other (Stabat Mater Speciosa) is not
Staff, Pastoral - The Pastoral Staff is an ecclesiastical ornament which is conferred on bishops at their consecration and on mitred abbots at their investiture, and which is used by these prelates in performing certain solemn functions
Stained Glass - The popular name for the glass used in the making of coloured windows
Stanislas Kostka, Saint - Polish Jesuit, died in 1568 at the age of 17, less than a year after entering the Society
Stanislaus of Cracow, Saint - Bishop and martyr, d. 1079. The patron saint of Poland
Stanza - An Italian word signifying room, chamber, apartment. In English the term is chiefly used for Raphael's celebrated Stanze in the Vatican Palace, four in number, the walls of which were frescoed by Raphael and his pupils
State and Church - The Church and the State are both perfect societies, that is to say, each essentially aiming at a common good commensurate with the need of mankind at large and ultimate in a generic kind of life, and each juridically competent to provide all the necessary and sufficient means thereto
State or Way - Stages in the spiritual life
States of the Church - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler
States, Papal - Consists of the civil territory which for over 1000 years (754-1870) acknowledged the pope as temporal ruler
Station Days - Days on which in the early Church fast was observed until the Hour of None (between twelve and three o'clock), later of Sext (nine to twelve), as distinct from the strict observance of the fast day proper until Vespers (three to six)
Stations of the Cross - Historical background on this devotion
Statistics, Ecclesiastical - Includes a history of their keeping
Statistics of Religions - Includes the definition and historical development, along with the status of religious bodies
Stephen, Saint - On the deacon, and first Christian martyr. Article suitable for teenagers and adults
Stephen, Saint - First King of Hungary. Baptized at the age of 10 by St. Adalbert, and died in 1038
Stephen I, Pope Saint - Reigned 254-257
Stephen II, Pope - Reigned 752
Stephen (II) III, Pope - Unanimously elected in St. Mary Major's and consecrated on 26 March (or 3 April), 752; d. 26 April, 757
Stephen (III) IV, Pope - Born about 720; died 1 or 3 August, 772
Stephen (IV) V, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died 24 Jan., 817
Stephen (V) VI, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in Sept., 891
Stephen (VI) VII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died about August, 897
Stephen (VII) VIII, Pope - Date of birth unknown; died in February or March, 931
Stephen (VIII) IX, Pope - Date of birth unknown; he became pope about 14 July, 939, and died about the end of Oct., 942
Stephen (IX) X, Pope - Born probably about the beginning of the eleventh century; died at Florence, 29 March, 1058
Stigmata, Mystical - Their existence is so well established historically that, as a general thing, they are no longer disputed by unbelievers, who now seek only to explain them naturally
Stipend - A fixed pay, salary; retribution for work done; the income of an ecclesiastical living
Stockholm - The capital of the Kingdom of Sweden, situated on Lake Maelar at the spot where it opens into the Saltsjoe
Stoics and Stoic Philosophy - The Stoic School was founded in 322 B.C. by Zeno of Cittium and existed until the closing of the Athenian schools (A.D. 429)
Stole - A liturgical vestment composed of a strip of material from two to four inches wide and about eighty inches long
Stones, Precious, in the Bible - Stones remarkable for their colour, brilliancy, or rarity
Stoning in Scripture - At first an expression of popular fury analogous to 'lynching', later came to be a natural and legally recognized method of execution
Stoup - Vessels intended for the use of holy water
Stradivari, Antonio - Cremonese violin-maker, b. in 1649 or 1650; d. at Cremona, 18 or 19 Dec., 1737
Sturluson, Snorri - Historian, born at Hvammr, 1178; died 1241
Stylites - Solitaries who, taking up their abode upon the tops of a pillar (stylos), chose to spend their days amid the restraints thus entailed and in the exercise of other forms of asceticism. This practice may be regarded as the climax of a tendency which became very pronounced in Eastern lands in the latter part of the fourth century
Suárez, Francisco - Article on his life, teachings and works, by A. Perez Goyena
Subdeacon - The subdiaconate is the lowest of the sacred or major orders in the Latin Church. It is defined as the power by which one ordained as a subdeacon may carry the chalice with wine to the altar, prepare the necessaries for the Eucharist, and read the Epistles before the people
Subiaco - A city in the Province of Rome, twenty-five miles from Tivoli, received its name from the artificial lakes of the villa of Nero and is renowned for its sacred grotto (Sagro Speco), the Abbey of St. Scholastica, and the archiepiscopal residence and Church of St. Andrew, which crowns the hill
Substance - A genus supremum, cannot strictly be defined by an analysis into genus and specific difference; yet a survey of the universe at large will enable us to form without difficulty an accurate idea of substance
Suburbicarian Dioceses - A name applied to the dioceses nearest Rome, viz. Albano, Frascati (Tusculum), Palestrina, Sabina, Ostia and Velletri, Porto and S. Rufina, the bishops of which form the order of cardinal bishops
Suger - Abbot of St-Denis, statesman and historian, b. probably at or near St-Denis, about 1081; d. there, 13 Jan., 1151
Suicide - The act of one who causes his own death, either by positively destroying his own life, as by inflicting on himself a mortal wound or injury, or by omitting to do what is necessary to escape death, as by refusing to leave a burning house
Summæ - Compendiums of theology, philosophy, and canon law which were used both as textbooks in the schools and as books of reference during the Middle Ages
Sunday - Sunday (Day of the Sun), as the name of the first day of the week, is derived from Egyptian astrology
Supernatural Adoption - The adoption of man by God in virtue of which we become His sons and heirs
Supernatural Gift - Something conferred on nature that is above all the powers (vires) of created nature
Supernatural Order - The ensemble of effects exceeding the powers of the created universe and gratuitously produced by God for the purpose of raising the rational creature above its native sphere to a God-like life and destiny
Superstition - From supersisto, 'to stand in terror of the deity'
Supper, The Last - The Evangelists and critics generally agree that the Last Supper was on a Thursday, that Christ suffered and died on Friday, and that He arose from the dead on Sunday
Suppression of Monasteries in England - From any point of view the destruction of the English monasteries by Henry VIII must be regarded as one of the great events of the sixteenth century
Surplice - A large-sleeved tunic of half-length, made of fine linen or cotton, and worn by all the clergy
Susanna and Tiburtius, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August
Suso, Blessed Henry - Biography of this German Dominican mystic, d. 1366
Sweden - The largest of the three Scandinavian countries and the eastern half of the Scandinavian peninsula
Swedenborgians - The believers in the religious doctrines taught by Emanuel Swedenborg. As an organized body they do not call themselves Swedenborgians, which seems to assert the human origin of their religion, but wish to be known as the 'Church of the New Jerusalem', or 'New Church', claiming for it Divine Authorship and promulgation through human instrumentality
Swithin, Saint - Bishop of Winchester (d. 862). One of the two trusted counsellors of Egbert, King of the West Saxons
Switzerland - A confederation in the central part of Western Europe, made up of twenty-two cantons, three of which are divided into half-cantons
Syllabus - The name given to two series of propositions containing modern religious errors condemned respectively by Pius IX (1864) and Pius X (1907)
Sylvester I, Pope Saint - In office for 21 years, while Constantine was emperor. St. Sylvester died in 335
Sylvester II - Pope (999-1003)
Sylvia, Saint - The mother of St. Gregory the Great. She died in about 592
Symbolism - The investing of outward things or actions with an inner meaning, more especially for the expression of religious ideas
Symmachus, Pope Saint - Lengthy article on this pope, who died in 514
Synagogue - The place of assemblage of the Jews. This article will treat of the name, origin, history, organization, liturgy and building of the synagogue
Synaxis - Means gathering, assembly, reunion. It is exactly equivalent to the Latin collecta (from colligere), and corresponds to synagogue (synagoge), the place of reunion
Syncretism - An explanation is given by Plutarch in a small work on brotherly love ('Opera Moralia', ed. Reiske, VII, 910). He there tells how the Cretans were often engaged in quarrels among themselves, but became immediately reconciled when an external enemy approached
Synderesis - Synderesis, or more correctly synteresis, is a term used by the Scholastic theologians to signify the habitual knowledge of the universal practical principles of moral action
Synod - A general term for ecclesiastical gatherings under hierarchical authority, for the discussion and decision of matters relating to faith, morals, or discipline. It corresponds to the Latin word concilium
Synoptics - The name given since Griesbach's time (about 1790) to the first three canonical Gospels
Syracuse - The Diocese of Syracuse, in the State of New York
Syria - A country in Western Asia, which in modern times comprises all that region bounded on the north by the highlands of the Taurus, on the south by Egypt, on the east by Mesopotamia and the Arabia Desert, and on the west by the Mediterranean
Syriac Language and Literature - Syriac is the important branch of the group of Semitic languages known as Aramaic
Syrian Rite, East - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Syrian Rite, West - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language
Syro-Chaldaic Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them
Syro-Jacobite Liturgy - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language
Syro-Malabar Church - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas
Syro-Malabar Rite - This rite is used by the Nestorians and also by Eastern Catholic bodies — in Syria, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Malabar — who have separated from them

T

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Tabernacle - Vessel holding the Blessed Sacrament
Tabernacle - Old Testament precursor to the Temple
Tabernacle Lamp - In the Old Testament God commanded that a lamp filled with the purest oil of olives should always burn in the Tabernacle of the Testimony without the veil
Tabernacles, Feast of - One of the three great feasts of the Hebrew liturgical calendar
Tabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit
Taigi, Ven. Anna Maria - Happily married for 48 years, became a Third Order Trinitarian, d. 1837
Talleyrand-Périgord, Charles-Maurice de - Prince of Benevento, Bishop of Autun, French minister and ambassador (1754-1838)
Talmud - A post-Biblical substantive formation of Pi'el ('to teach'), and originally signified 'doctrine' or 'study'
Taney, Roger Brooke - Fifth chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States
Tantum Ergo - The opening words of the penultimate stanza of the Vesper hymn of Corpus Christi
Taoism - Religion derived from the philosophical doctrines of Lao-tze
Tapestry - A fabric in which the two processes of weaving and embroidering are combined
Targum - The distinctive designation of the Aramaic translations or paraphrases of the Old Testament
Tarragona - Its suffragans are Barcelona, Lerida, Gerona, Urgel, Vich, Tortosa, and Solsona
Tarsicius, Saint - Was carrying the Blessed Sacrament on his person, and refused to surrender it when beset by a pagan mob. Martyr of the third or early fourth century
Tarsus - A metropolitan see of Cilicia Prima
Tatian - A second-century apologist about whose antecedents and early history nothing can be affirmed with certainty except that he was born in Assyria and that he was trained in Greek philosophy
Tauler, John - Article on the life and teachings of this 14th-century German Dominican mystic and author
Te Deum, The - An abbreviated title commonly given a hymn in rhythmical prose, of which the opening words, Te Deum Laudamus, formed its earliest known title
Tekakwitha, Blessed Kateri - Biographical article on the 'Lily of the Mohawks,' who died in 1680. Also known as Catherine Tegakwitha or Takwita
Teleology - From Greek telos, end, and logos, science
Telepathy - A term introduced by F.W.H. Myers in 1882 to denote 'the ability of one mind to impress or to be impressed by another mind otherwise than through the recognized channels of sense'
Telesphorus, Pope Saint - Martyr, died c. 136
Te Lucis Ante Terminum - The hymn at Compline in the Roman Breviary
Temperance - One of the four cardinal virtues
Temperance Movements - Covers the history in Europe, the United States, and Canada
Templars, The Knights - The earliest founders of the military orders
Temple - The Latin form, templum, from which the English temple is derived, originally signified an uncovered area marked off by boundaries; especially the place marked off by the augurs to be excepted from all profane uses
Temple of Jerusalem - In the Bible the sanctuary of Jerusalem bears the Hebrew name of Bet Yehovah (house of Jehovah)
Temptation - An incitement to sin whether by persuasion or by the offer of some good or pleasure
Temptation of Christ - Christ endured temptation only from without, inasmuch as His human nature was free from all concupiscence
Ten Commandments, The - The fundamental obligations of religion and morality and embodying the revealed expression of the Creator's will in relation to man's whole duty to God and to his fellow-creatures
Tenebræ - The name given to the service of Matins and Lauds belonging to the last three days of Holy Week
Tenebrae Hearse - The triangular candlestick used in the Tenebrae service
Terce - Essay on the office of Terce, the earliest of the 'little hours' in the day
Teresa of Avila, Saint - Carmelite reformer and founder, mystic, author, d. 1582
Teresa of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan
Teresian Martyrs of Compiègne, The Sixteen Blessed - Guillotined at the Place du Trone Renverse (now called Place de la Nation), Paris, 17 July, 1794
Terrestrial Paradise - The name popularly given in Christian tradition to the scriptural Garden of Eden
Tertiaries - Known as 'Third Orders', those persons who live according to the Third Rule of religious orders, either outside of a monastery in the world, or in a religious community
Tertullian - Ecclesiastical writer in the second and third centuries
Testament, Old - The Apostle St. Paul declares himself (II Cor., iii, 6) a minister 'of the new testament', and calls (iii, 14) the covenant entered into on Mount Sinai 'the old testament'
Testament, New - Jesus Christ uses the words 'new testament' as meaning the alliance established by Himself between God and the world, and this is called 'new' as opposed to that of which Moses was the mediator
Test-Oath, Missouri - The terms of the oath required the affiant to deny, not only that he had ever been in armed hostility to the United States, or to the lawful authorities thereof, but that he had ever 'by act or word', manifested his adherence to the cause of the enemies of the United States
Tetzel, Johann - First public antagonist of Luther (1465-1519)
Teutonic Order - A medieval military order modeled on the Hospitallers of St. John
Texas - Includes geography, history, demographic, and government information
Textual Criticism - The object of textual criticism is to restore as nearly as possible the original text of a work the autograph of which has been lost
Thabor, Mount - Distinguished among the mountains of Palestine for its picturesque site, its graceful outline, the remarkable vegetation which covers its sides of calcareous rock, and the splendour of the view from its summit
Thagaste - A titular see in Numidia
Thais, Saint - A penitent in Egypt in the fourth century
Thanksgiving before and after Meals - The word grace, which, as applied to prayer over food, always in pre-Elizabethan English took the plural form graces, means nothing but thanksgiving
Thanksgiving Day - The custom originated in 1621, when Governor Bradford of the Plymouth colony appointed a day for public praise and prayer after the first harvest
Theatines - A religious order of men, founded by Gaetano dei Conti di Tiene, Paolo Consiglieri, Bonifacio da Colle, and Giovanni Pietro Carafa, afterwards Pope Paul IV
Theatre, The - All forms of the drama were banned by the Fathers of both East and West indiscriminately and in terms of the severest reprobation
Thecla, Saints - The most famous of several saints named Thecla is Thecla of Iconium. Other saints of this name include a martyr from Gaza, an African martyr, one or two Roman martyrs, one who is purely legendary (Boniface and Thecla), and one St. Thecla of whom almost nothing is known
Theft - The secret taking of another's property against the reasonable will of that other
Theocracy - A form of civil government in which God Himself is recognized as the head
Theodicy - Term was introduced into philosophy by Leibniz
Theodore I, Pope - Reigned from 642 to 649
Theodore II, Pope - Son of Photius
Theodore, Bishop of Mopsuestia - Bishop in Cilicia and ecclesiastical writer
Theodore of Amasea, Saint - Soldier saint, martyred in 306. After refusing a court order to sacrifice to the gods, St. Theodore was released for a time of reflection--and burnt a pagan temple
Theodoret - Bishop of Cyrus and theologian, born at Antioch in Syria about 393; died about 457
Theodoric the Great - King of the Ostrogoths
Theodosius I - Roman Emperor (also known as Flavius Theodosius), born in Spain, about 346; died at Milan, 17 January, 395
Theology, Ascetical - Briefly defined as the scientific exposition of Christian asceticism
Theology, Dogmatic - That part of theology which treats of the theoretical truths of faith concerning God and His works
Theology, History of Dogmatic - Detailed article broken into time periods
Theology, Moral - Limited to those doctrines which discuss the relations of man and his free actions to God and his supernatural end, and propose the means instituted by God for the attainment of that end
Theology, Mystical - Mysticism and mystical prayer or contemplation considered from a Catholic perspective, along with a bibliography of famous Christian mystics
Theology, Pastoral - The science of the care of souls
Theology of Christ (Christology) - Christology is that part of theology which deals with Our Lord Jesus Christ
Theophilus - Second-century Bishop of Antioch
Theosophy - A term used in general to designate the knowledge of God supposed to be obtained by the direct intuition of the Divine essence
Theotocopuli, Domenico - Spanish artist. Born in Crete, between 1545 and 1550; died at Toledo, 7 April, 1614
Thérèse of Lisieux, Saint - Short biographical article by Edith Donovan
Thessalonians, Epistles to the - Two of the canonical Epistles of St. Paul
Thessalonica - Titular metropolis in Macedonia
Third Orders - Lay members of religious orders, i.e. men and women who do not necessarily live in community and yet can claim to wear the habit and participate in the good works of some great order
Thirty Years War - Though pre-eminently a German war, was also of great importance for the history of the whole of Europe
Thomas the Apostle, Saint - Article on Thomas in Scripture and in legend
Thomas à Kempis - Author of the 'Imitation of Christ', born at Kempen in the Diocese of Cologne, in 1379 or 1380; died 25 July, 1471
Thomas Aquinas, Saint - Lengthy article on the life, writings, and influence of this philosopher, theologian, and Doctor of the Church. Called the Angelic Doctor. Died in 1274
Thomas Becket, Saint - Biography of this martyr, also known as St. Thomas of Canterbury, where he was archbishop and where he was murdered in 1170
Thomas Christians, Saint - An ancient body of Christians on the east and west coasts of India, claiming spiritual descent from the Apostle St. Thomas
Thomas More, Saint - Biographical article on the Lord Chancellor of England, and martyr. Beheaded 1535
Thomas of Celano - Franciscan poet and writer (1200-1255)
Thomas of Villanova, Saint - Spanish Augustinian, d. 1555. Educator, diligent in almsgiving, Archbishop of Valencia
Thomism - In a broad sense, the name given to the system which follows the teaching of St. Thomas Aquinas in philosophical and theological questions
Thompson, Francis - Poet (1859-1907)
Thorns, Crown of - Mentioned by three Evangelists and is often alluded to by the early Christian Fathers, such as Clement of Alexandria, Origen, and others, but there are comparatively few writers of the first six centuries who speak of it as a relic known to be still in existence
Three Chapters - (1) the person and writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia; (2) certain writings of Theodoret of Cyrus; (3) the letter of Ibas to Maris
Throne - The seat the bishop uses when not engaged at the altar
Thundering Legion - The story of an expedition against the Quadi led by Emperor Marcus Aurelius
Tiara - The papal crown, ornamented with precious stones and pearls, which is shaped like a bee-hive, has a small cross at its highest point
Tiberias - Titular see, suffragan of Scythopolis, in Palaestina Secunda
Tiberias, Sea of - So called in John 21:1 (cf. 6:1), otherwise known as 'the sea of Galilee'
Tiberius - Brief biography of the second Roman emperor
Tiburtius and Susanna, Saints - Roman martyrs, feast 11 August
Tilly, Johannes Tserclæs, Count of - Born at Brabant in 1559; died at Ingolstadt in April, 1632
Time - Article explores two questions, What are the notes, or elements, contained in the subjective representation of time? and To what external reality does this representation correspond?
Timothy and Titus, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul
Timucua Indians - A principal group or confederacy of ancient Florida
Tintoretto, Il - Italian painter, b. at Venice, 1518; d. there 1594
Tissot, James - French draughtsman and painter (1836-1902)
Tithes - The tenth part of the increase arising from the profits of land and stock, alotted to the clergy for their support or devoted to religious or charitable uses
Tithes, Lay - Ecclesiastical tithes, which in the course of time became alienated from the Church to lay proprietors
Titian - Biography of the artist, with bibliography
Titus - Biography of the first-century Roman Emperor
Titus and Timothy, Epistles to - Disciples of St. Paul
Tobias - Name of various persons and a book in the Bible
Tocqueville, Charles-Alexis-Henri-Maurice-Clerel de - Writer and statesman (1805-1859)
Toledo (Spain) - Primatial see of Spain, whose archbishop, raised almost always to the dignity of cardinal, occupies the first place in the ranks of the higher Spanish clergy
Toleration, Religious - The magnanimous indulgence one shows towards a religion other than his own, accompanied by the moral determination to leave it and its adherents unmolested in private and public, although internally one views it with complete disapproval as a 'false faith'
Tomb - A memorial for the dead at the place of burial, customary, especially for distinguished persons
Tomb of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Explores the question where Mary died and was buried, either Jerusalem or Ephesus
Tongues, Gift of - A supernatural gift of the class gratiae gratis datae, designed to aid in the outer development of the primitive Church
Tonsure - A sacred rite instituted by the Church by which a baptized and confirmed Christian is received into the clerical order
Torah - Signifies first 'direction, instruction', as, for instance, the instruction of parents, or of the wise
Toribio Alfonso Mogrovejo, Saint - Pioneering missionary archbishop of Lima, founded first seminary in the Americas, d. 1606
Torquemada, Tomás de - Grand Inquisitor of Spain (1420-1498)
Torricelli, Evangelista - Italian mathematician and physicist, born at Faenza, 15 October, 1608; died at Florence, 25 October, 1647
Toscanelli, Paolo dal Pozzo - Mathematician, astronomer, and cosmographer (1397-1482)
Totemism - Constitutes the group of superstitions and customs of which the totem is the center
Toulouse - Includes the Department of Haute-Garonne
Tower of Babel - Information on the history, site, and construction of the tower
Tradition and Living Magisterium - The word tradition refers sometimes to the thing (doctrine, account, or custom) transmitted from one generation to another sometimes to the organ or mode of the transmission
Traditionalism - A philosophical system which makes tradition the supreme criterion and rule of certitude
Traducianism - In general the doctrine that, in the process of generation, the human spiritual soul is transmitted to the offspring by the parents
Trajan - Emperor of Rome (A.D. 98-117), b. at Italica Spain, 18 September, 53; d. 7 August, 117
Transcendentalism - The terms transcendent and transcendental have antithetical reference to experience or the empirical order
Transept - A rectangular space inserted between the apse and nave in the early Christian basilica
Transfiguration - Culminating point of Christ's public life, as His Baptism is its starting point, and His Ascension its end
Transfiguration of Christ, Feast of the - Observed on August 6 to commemorate the manifestation of the Divine glory recorded by St. Matthew (Chapter 17)
Transubstantiation - The change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the Body and Blood of Christ
Trappists - The Cistercians who follow the reform inaugurated by the Abbot de Rance (b. 1626; d. 1700) in the Abbey of La Trappe, and often now applied to the entire Order of Reformed Cistercians
Treason, Accusations of - A common misrepresentation concerning the Elizabethan persecution of English and Irish Catholics from 1570 onwards is the statement that the victims devoted to imprisonment, torture, and death suffered not for their religious belief but for treason against the queen and her government
Trent - Diocese; suffragan of Salzburg
Trent, Council of - Main object was the definitive determination of the doctrines of the Church in answer to the heresies of the Protestants
Tribe, Jewish - The earlier Hebrew term rendered in English versions by the word 'tribe' is shebet, while the term matteh, prevails in the post-exilic writings
Triduum - Three days. Frequently chosen for prayer or for other devout practices
Trier - Diocese; suffragan of Cologne
Trinitarians, Order of - Towards the end of the twelfth century the order had 250 houses throughout Christendom, where its benevolent work was manifested by the return of liberated captives
Trinity, The Blessed - The term employed to signify the central doctrine of the Christian religion, the truth that in the unity of the Godhead there are three persons, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, these three persons being truly distinct one from another
Trinity Sunday - The first Sunday after Pentecost, instituted to honour the Most Holy Trinity
Tritheists - Heretics who divide the Substance of the Blessed Trinity
Trope - A collective name which, since about the close of the Middle Ages or a little later, has been applied to texts of great variety (in both poetry and prose) written for the purpose of amplifying and embellishing an independently complete liturgical text
Truce of God - A temporary suspension of hostilities, as distinct from the Peace of God which is perpetual
True Cross, The - (1) Growth Of the Christian Cult; (2) Catholic Doctrine on the Veneration of the Cross; (3) Relics of the True Cross; (4) Principal Feasts of the Cross
Trullo, Council in - Particular council held in A.D. 692
Trumpets, Feast of - The first day of Tishri (October), the seventh month of the Hebrew year
Trustee System - In the exercise of inherent rights of administering property, the Church often appoints deputies
Truth - Defines ontological, logical, and moral truth
Tuam - The Archdiocese of Tuam, the metropolitan see of Connacht, extends, roughly speaking, from the Shannon westwards to the sea, and comprises half of County Galway, and nearly half of Mayo, with a small portion of south Roscommon
Tunic - A vestment shaped like a sack, which has in the closed upper part only a slit for putting the garment over the head, and, on the sides, either sleeves or slits through which the arms can be passed
Tunis - French protectorate on the northern coast of Africa
Turin, Shroud of - A relic now preserved at Turin, for which the claim is made that it is the actual 'clean linen cloth' in which Joseph of Arimathea wrapped the body of Jesus Christ
Turkish Empire - Created in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries on the ruins of the Byzantine Empire, from the caliphate of Baghdad and independent Turkish principalities
Types in Scripture - Offers several definitions
Tyrannicide - The killing of a tyrant, and usually is taken to mean the killing of a tyrant by a private person for the common good
Tyre - Melchite archdiocese and Maronite diocese

U

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please use the search box at the top of this page.

Ubaghs, Casimir - Born at Bergélez-Fauquemont, 26 November, 1800; died at Louvain, 15 February, 1875
Ubaldus, Saint - Confessor, Bishop of Gubbio, born of noble parents at Gubbio, Umbria, Italy, towards the beginning of the twelfth centry; died there, Whitsuntide, 1168
Ubanghi - Vicariate Apostolic; formerly part of the Vicariate of French Congo, erected on 14 Oct., 1890
Ubanghi, Belgian - In Belgian Congo, separated on 7 April, 1911, from the Vicariate of the Belgian Congo and entrusted to the Capuchins
Ubanghi-Chari - Prefecture Apostolic in Equatorial Africa
Uberaba - Suffragan diocese of Marianna, in Brazil
Ubertino of Casale - Leader of the Spirituals, born at Casale of Vercelli, 1259; died about 1330
Ubiquitarians - A Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December, 1559, by John Brenz
Ucayali - Prefecture Apostolic in Peru
Uccello - Painter, born at Florence, 1397; died there, 1475
Udine - The capital of a province and archdiocese in Friuli, northern Italy
Ugento - Situated in the Province of Leece, in Apulia, on the Gulf of Tarentum
Ughelli, Ferdinando - Historian (1595-1670)
Uhtred - An English Benedictine theologian and writer
Ujejski, Cornelius - Polish poet (1823-1897)
Ulenberg, Kaspar - Convert, theological writer and translator of the Bible (1549-1617)
Ulfilas - Apostle of the Goths, missionary, translator of the Bible, and inventor of an alphabet
Ullathorne, William Bernard - English Benedictine monk and bishop (1806-1889)
Ullerston, Richard - From 1403 held the prebend of Oxford in Salisbury cathedral, and from 1407 the rectory of Beeford in Yorkshire
Ulloa, Antoine de - Naval officer and scientist (1716-1795)
Ulloa, Francisco de - Accompanied Hernan Cortes to California
Ulrich, Saint - Bishop of Augsburg, died 973
Ulrich of Bamberg - A cleric of the cathedral church of Bamberg
Ulrich of Richenthal - Chronicler of the Council of Constance
Ulrich of Zell - Wulderic; called also of Cluny, and of Ratisbon
Ultan of Ardbracca - Collected a life of the Irish saint for his pupil, St. Brogan Cloen of Rostuirc, on Ossory
Ultramontanism - A term used to denote integral and active Catholicism
Unam Sanctam - The Bull on papal supremacy issued 18 November, 1302, by Boniface VIII during the dispute with Philip the Fair, King of France
Unclean and Clean - The distinction between legal and ceremonial, as opposed to moral
Unction, Extreme - A sacrament to give spiritual aid and comfort and perfect spiritual health, including, if need be, the remission of sins, and also, conditionally, to restore bodily health, to Christians who are seriously ill
Ungava - A Canadian territory lying north of the Province of Quebec
Uniformity Acts - Statutes passed in an effort to secure uniformity in public worship throughout England
Unigenitus - A celebrated Apostolic Constitution of Clement XI, condemning 101 propositions of Pasquier Quesnel
Union of Brest - 1596. The union of the Ruthenians with Catholicism
Union of Christendom - Includes the Catholic Church together with the many other religious communions which have either directly or indirectly, separated from it
Unions of Prayer - Details of four unions of prayer
Unitarians - A Protestant sect which holds as it distinctive tenet the belief in a uni-personal instead of a tri-personal God
Unitas Fratrum - 'Bohemian Brethren' and 'Moravian Brethren' are the current popular designation of the Unitas Fratrum founded in Bohemia in 1457, renewed by Count Zinzendorf in 1722
United States of America, The - Provides geographic, historic, and statistical information
Unitive Way - Stages in the spiritual life
Unity - Characterizes the one Church founded by Christ
Universalists - A liberal Protestant sect whose distinctive tenet is the belief in the final salvation of all souls
Universals - Those ideas which, while excluding whatever constitutes the difference of things of the same genus or species, represent that which is necessary to their constitution, is essential, and is therefore common to all, remaining fixed in all vicissitudes
Universe - Presents a history of astronomy
Universe, Relation of God to the - Sections include essential dependence of the universe on God, divine immanence and transcendence, and possibility of the supernatural
Universities - The principal Catholic foundations have been treated in special articles; here the general aspects of the subject are presented
University College (Dublin) - A constitutional college of the National University of Ireland
Unjust Aggressor - According to the accepted teaching of theologians, it is lawful, in the defense of life or limb, of property of some importance, and of chastity, to repel violence with violence, even to the extent of killing an unjust assailant
Unyanyembe - Vicariate apostolic in German East Africa
Upper Nile - Vicariate apostolic; separated from the mission of Nyanza, 6 July, 1894, comprises the eastern portion of Uganda
Upper Rhine - Ecclesiastical province; includes the Archdiocese of Freiburg and the suffragan Dioceses of Fulda, Mainz, Limburg, and Rottenburg
Upsala, Ancient See of - History of an episcopal see established at Old Upsala, the center of idolatrous worship not only for Sweden but for all Scandinavia
Upsala, University of - The oldest university of Sweden
Uranopolis - A titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Ancyra in Galatia Prima
Urban I, Pope Saint - Died 230. Very little is known about his life, and even his burial place was in doubt for some time
Urban II, Pope Blessed - Long article on the canon and later Cluniac prior, assistant to Pope Gregory VII. Urban was elected unanimously to the papacy in 1088, but was forced to spend years wandering southern Italy. He died in 1099
Urban III, Pope - Reigned 1185-87, born at Milan; died at Ferrara, 19 October, 1187
Urban IV, Pope - Reigned 1216-64
Urban V, Pope Blessed - Benedictine monk, canonist, diplomat, elected to the papacy in 1362, d. 1370
Urban VI, Pope - Bartolomeo Prignano, the first Roman pope during the Western Schism
Urban VII, Pope - Giambattista Castagna, born at Rome, 4 Aug., 1521; elected pope, 15 September, 1590; died at Rome, 27 September, 1590
Urban VIII, Pope - Maffeo Barberini (1568-1644)
Urbi et Orbi - Signifies that a papal document is addressed not only to the City of Rome but to the entire Catholic world
Urbino - Province of Pesaro and Urbino, Italy
Urbs beata Jerusalem dicta pacis visio - The first line of a hymn of probably the seventh or eighth century, comprising eight stanzas together with a doxology
Urdaneta, Andrés - Augustinian, born at Villafranca, Guipuzcoa, Spain, 1498; died in the City of Mexico, 1568
Urgel - Diocese in Spain, suffragan of Tarragona
Urim and Thummim - The sacred lot by means of which the ancient Hebrews were wont to seek manifestations of the Divine will
Urmiah - A residential see in Chaldea, in the Province of Adherbaidjan, Persia
Urráburu, Juan José - Article on this Jesuit thinker, by Antonio Nadal
Ursperger Chronicle - A history of the world in Latin that begins with the Assyrian King Ninius and extends to the year 1229
Ursula, Saint, and the Eleven Thousand Virgins - This history rests on ten lines, and these are open to question
Ursula of the Blessed Virgin, Society of the Sisters of Saint - Religious congregation of women founded in 1606 by the Venerable Anne de Xainctonge (1587-1612)
Ursulines, The - Founded by St. Angela de Merici
Ursulines of Quebec, The - The oldest institution of learning for women in North America
Ursus, Saint - Member of the Theban Legion, martyr, commemorated from very early times
Urubamba - This prefecture apostolic was created by a Decree of the Holy See in 1899 at the request of the Peruvian Government
Uruguay - The smallest independent state in South America
Uruguayana - Diocese; suffragan of Porto Alegre, Brazil
Ushaw College - A combined college and seminary for the six dioceses that were comprised in the old Northern Vicariate of England
Usilla - A titular see of Byzacena in Africa
Usuard, Martyrology of - A Benedictine monk of the Abbey of St-Germain-des-Prxs, Paris
Usury - Defines the church's view on money lending
Utah - The thirty-second state admitted to the Union, takes its name from an Indian tribe known as the Utes
Ut Queant Laxis Resonare Fibris - The first line of a hymn in honour of St. John the Baptist
Uthina - A titular see of Africa Proconsularis, suffragan of Carthage
Utica - A titular see in Africa Proconsularis
Utilitarianism - A modern form of the Hedonistic ethical theory which teaches that the end of human conduct is happiness, and that consequently the discriminating norm which distinguishes conduct into right and wrong is pleasure and pain
Utopia - A term used to designate a visionary or an ideally perfect state of society first used by Sir Thomas More
Utraquism - The principal dogma, and one of the four articles, of the Calixtines or Hussites
Utrecht, Archdiocese of - Situated in the Netherlands, includes the Provinces of Utrecht, Friesland, Overyssel, Drenthe, Groningen, the larger part of Gelderland, and a small part of North Holland

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Vacancy - A term applied to an office or position devoid of an incumbent, as a vacant benefice, bishopric, or parish
Valens, Flavius - Emperor of the East (328-378)
Valentine, Saint - At least three different Saint Valentines, all of them martyrs, are mentioned in the early martyrologies under date of 14 February
Valentine, Pope - Reigned briefly in A.D. 827
Valentinian I - Emperor of the West (321-375)
Valentinus and Valentinians - The best known and most influential of the Gnostic heretics, born on the coast of Egypt
Valerian - Biography of the Roman ruler, focusing on his treatment of Christians
Validation of Marriage - May be effected by a simple renewal of consent when its nullity arises only from a defective consent in one or both parties
Valla, Lorenzo - Article by U. Benigni on the teachings of this Italian humanist
Vallumbrosan Order - Founded by St. John Gualbert, son of the noble Florentine Gualbert Visdomini
Van Beethoven, Ludwig - Composer (1770-1827)
Van Cleef, Jan - Flemish painter (1646-1716)
Vandals - A Germanic people belonging to the family of East Germans
Van Eyck, Hubert and Jan - Brothers, Flemish illuminators and painters, founders of the school of Bruges and consequently of all the schools of painting in the North of Europe
Vasari, Giorgio - Painter, architect, and writer (1511-1574)
Vase, Altar - Vase to hold flowers for the decoration of the altar
Vatican, The - Detailed history and information
Vatican as a Scientific Institution, The - Details of scientific activity in the Vatican
Vatican Council - The twentieth and up to 1912, the last ecumenical council, opened on 8 December, 1869, and adjourned on 20 October, 1870
Vatican Observatory - Gregory XIII ordered a tower to be erected in a convenient part of the Vatican buildings, and to be fitted out with the greatest and best instruments of the time
Vaticanus, Codex - A quarto volume written in uncial letters of the fourth century
Vedas - Sacred books of ancient India
Veil, Humeral - The name given to a cloth of rectangular shape about 8 feet long and 18 inches wide
Veil, Religious - The bride of Christ, as the vestal virgins had done, adopted the veil, which thus symbolized not so much the purity as the inviolable fidelity to Christ which was to be reverenced in her
Velazquez, Diego Rodriguez de Silva y - Artist's biography by Louis Gillet
Venezuela - A republic formed out of the provinces which, under Spanish rule, constituted the captaincy general of the same name
Veni Creator Spiritus - The most famous of hymns, assigned in the Roman Breviary to Vespers (I and II) and Terce of Pentecost and throughout the octave
Veni Sancte Spiritus Et Emitte Coelitus - Sung at Mass from Whitsunday until the following Saturday inclusively, and comprises ten stanzas
Venice - The capital of a province in Northern Italy, is formed of a group of 117 small islands joined together by 378 bridges mostly built of stone
Verbiest, Ferdinand - Jesuit missionary and astronomer (1623-1688)
Verdi, Giuseppe - Italian composer (1813-1901)
Verne, Jules - Novelist (1828-1905)
Veronica, Saint - Veronica is a name popularly given to one of the women who accompanied Christ to Calvary. 'Veronica' is an abbreviation of 'vera icon' (true image), and the woman now called Veronica is said to have offered a towel to Christ, on which he left the imprint of his face
Veronica Giuliani, Saint - Short biographical article on this Capuchin, who died in 1727
Verrazano, Giovanni da - Navigator, died 1527
Verrocchio, Andrea del - Artist (1435-1488)
Versions of the Bible - Article on versions of the Bible in the original languages and in translation. Grouped by source
Versions of the Bible, Coptic - At least parts of Scripture were translated into all four dialects of the Coptic language, though there is some debate about which of the Coptic versions is oldest
Vesalius, Andreas - The reorganizer of the study of anatomy
Vespasian - Biography of the Roman Emperor
Vespers - Historical article on Evening Prayer, one of the two principal canonical hours
Vespers, Music of - Applies especially to the cathedral Office, i.e., the Liturgy of the Hours in a parish setting
Vespers, Sicilian - The traditional name given to the insurrection which broke out at Palermo on Easter Tuesday, 31 March, 1282, against the domination of Charles of Anjou
Vespucci, Amerigo - Biographical article on the Italian navigator (1451-1512)
Vessels, Altar - The chalice is the cup in which the wine and water of the Eucharistic Sacrifice is contained
Vestibule (in Architecture) - A hall projecting in front of the facade of a church, found from the fifth century both in the East and the West
Vestments - According to the rules of the Church or from ecclesiastical usage, are to be worn by the clergy in performing the ceremonies of the services of the Church
Veto, The Royal - Lord Grenville presented a petition for the Catholics in the Lords, and, in moving for a committee, proposed an effective veto for the king on the appointment of bishops
Vexilla Regis Prodeunt - Written by Venantius Fortunatus
Via Crucis - Historical background on this devotion
Via Dolorosa - Historical background on this devotion
Vianney, Saint Jean-Baptiste-Marie - The Cure of Ars, d. 1869
Viaticum - Among the ancient Greeks the custom prevailed of giving a supper to those setting out on a journey
Vicar - In canon law, the representative of a person clothed with ordinary ecclesiastical jurisdiction
Vicar Apostolic - In the early ages of the Church, the popes committed to some residentiary bishops the duty of watching over ecclesiastical matters in a certain region
Vicar of Christ - A title of the pope implying his supreme and universal primacy, both of honour and of jurisdiction, over the Church of Christ
Vicar-General - The highest official of a diocese after the ordinary
Vice - Regarded as a habit inclining one to sin
Victimae Paschali Laudes Immolent Christiani - First stanza of the Easter sequence
Victor I, Pope Saint - Article on the late second-century pope, involved in the Quartodeciman controversy
Victor II, Pope - Reigned 1055-57
Victor III, Pope Blessed - Benedictine monk, peacemaker, abbot of Monte Cassino, elected to the papacy in 1086, d. 1087
Victor IV - Cardinal Gregory Conti, elected in opposition to Innocent II
Vienna - The capital of Austria-Hungary, the residence of the emperor, and the seat of a Latin archbishopric
Vienne, Council of - Convened 1311-1312, dealing mainly with the Knights Templar
Vigilius, Pope - Reigned 537-55
Vikings - The Scandinavians who, in the ninth and tenth centuries, first ravaged the coasts of Western Europe and its islands and then turned from raiding into settlers.
Vincent, Saint - Essay on the deacon, a native of Saragossa, martyred in 304
Vincent de Paul, Saint - Biography of the French priest, founder of the Congregation of the Mission, who died in 1660
Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint - A congregation of women with simple vows, founded in 1633 and devoted to corporal and spiritual works of mercy
Vincent de Paul, Sisters of Charity of Saint (New York) - Motherhouse at Mt. St. Vincent-on Hudson, New York; not to be confused with the Sisters of Charity of St. Vincent de Paul founded earlier
Vincent de Paul, Society of Saint - International association of Catholic laymen engaging in personal service of the poor
Vincent Ferrer, Saint - Biography of this Spanish-born Dominican missionary, who died in 1419
Vincent of Lérins, Saint - Essay on the fifth-century monk and ecclesiastical writer
Vincentians - A congregation of secular priests with religious vows founded by St. Vincent de Paul
Vinci, Leonardo di Ser Piero da - Florentine painter, sculptor, architect, engineer and scholar (1452-1519)
Violence - The stimulus or moving cause must come from without; no one can do violence to himself
Virgin Birth of Christ - The dogma which teaches that the Blessed Mother of Jesus Christ was a virgin before, during, and after the conception and birth of her Divine Son
Virgin Mary, The - The Blessed Virgin Mary is the mother of Jesus Christ, the mother of God
Virgin Mary, Name of - The Hebrew form of her name is Miryam
Virgin Mary, Devotion to the - Devotion to Our Blessed Lady in its ultimate analysis must be regarded as a practical application of the doctrine of the Communion of Saints
Virginity - Morally, virginity signifies the reverence for bodily integrity which is suggested by a virtuous motive
Virtue - According to its etymology the word virtue (Latin virtus) signifies manliness or courage
Virtue, Heroic - St. Augustine first applied the pagan title of hero to the Christian martyrs
Visigoths - One of the two principal branches of the Goths
Visions - The article deals not with natural but with supernatural visions, that is, visions due to the direct intervention of a power superior to man
Visit ad Limina - The obligation incumbent on certain members of the hierarchy of visiting, the 'thresholds of the Apostles', Sts. Peter and Paul, and of presenting themselves before the pope to give an account of the state of their dioceses
Visitation, Canonical - The act of an ecclesiastical superior who in the discharge of his office visits persons or places with a view of maintaining faith and discipline, and of correcting abuses by the application of proper remedies
Visitation of the Blessed Virgin Mary - Article on the event and the feast
Visitation Order - The nuns of the Visitation of Mary, called also Filles de Sainte-Marie, Visitandines, and Salesian Sisters, were founded in 1610
Visitors Apostolic - Officials whom canonists commonly class with papal legates
Visits to the Blessed Sacrament - A devotional practice of relatively modern development, honoring the Real Presence of Christ
Vitalian, Pope Saint - He tried to win over the Monothelites who then held sway in Constantinople, and was the reigning pope at the time of the Synod of Whitby. He died in 672
Vitellius, Lucius - Proclaimed Roman Emperor by the soldiers at Cologne during the civil war of A.D. 69; d. at Rome, 21 Dec., 69
Vivarini - A family of Italian painters. Alvise, Antonio, and Bartolommeo (Bartolommeo da Murano)
Vives, Juan Luis - Article on his life and works, by Paul Lejay
Vivisection - Defined literally the word vivisection signifies the dissection of living creatures
Vladimir the Great, Saint - Biography of the grandson of St. Olga. Grand Duke of Kiev and All Russia, first ruler of Russia to convert to Christianity, d. 1015
Vocation, Ecclesiastical and Religious - The special gift of those who, in the Church of God, follow with a pure intention the ecclesiastical profession of the evangelical counsels
Volta, Alessandro - Physicist (1745-1827)
Volterra, Daniele da - Italian painter (1509-1566)
Voluntarism - In the modern metaphysical sense is a theory which explains the universe as emanating ultimately from some form of will
Voluntary - Wilful, proceeding from the will
Voluntary Association, Right of - Any group of individuals freely united for the pursuit of a common end
Völuspá - A wise woman
Votive Mass - A Mass offered for a votum, a special intention
Votive Offerings - The general name given to those things vowed or dedicated to God, or a saint, and in consequence looked upon as set apart by this act of consecration
Votive Offices - One not entered in the general calendar, but adopted with a view to satisfying a special devotion
Vows - A promise made to God
Vulgate, Revision of - In the spring of 1907 the public press announced that Pius X had determined to begin preparations for a critical revision of the Latin Bible

W

     This list represents only a tiny fraction of articles available on the New Advent website. For a more complete list, please see the full index for W or use the search box at the top of this page.

Wachter, Eberhard - Painter, born at Stuttgart, (1762-1852)
Wakash Indians - A linguistic family inhabiting the western coast of British Columbia, and the west and northwest of Vancouver Island, as well as a small region around Cape Flattery, Washington
Walburga, Saint - Fairly lengthy biographical article on this abbess of a double monastery, and author, who died in 777
Waldenses - An heretical sect which appeared in the second half of the twelfth century
Waldseemüller, Martin - Learned humanist and celebrated cartographer. A canon of St-Die in Lorraine (1475-1522)
Wales - Located in the western portion of Great Britain
Walla-Walla Indians - A Shahaptian tribe dwelling on the Walla-Walla River and the Columbia in Washington and Oregon, from Snake River to the Umatilla
Waltham Abbey - Formerly located near London
War - In its juridical sense, a contention carried on by force of arms between sovereign states, or communities having in this regard the right of states
Ward, Margaret, Saint - English martyr, died at Tyburn in 1588
Ward, Mary - Founded the Institute of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Ward, William George - English writer and convert (1812-1882)
Washing of Feet and Hands - Owing to the general use of sandals in Eastern countries the washing of the feet was almost everywhere recognized from the earliest times as a duty of courtesy to be shown to guests
Water, Holy - In the earliest Christian times, water was used for expiatory and purificatory purposes, to a way analogous to its employment under the Jewish Law
Water, Holy, Fonts - Vessels intended for the use of holy water
Water, Liturgical Use of - Besides the holy water which is used in rites of blessing, and the water employed in the washing of feet and hands, and in the baptismal font, water has its recognized place in the ritual of every Mass
Watteau, Jean Antoine - Artist's biography with bibliography
Way of the Cross - Historical background on this devotion
Way or State - Stages in the spiritual life
Wealth, Use of - The term 'wealth' is not used here in the technical sense in which it occurs in treatises on economic subjects
Weber, Karl Maria Friedrich Ernst von - Composer (1786-1826)
Week, Liturgical - The week was regarded as a sacred institution among the Jews owing to the law of the Sabbath rest and its association with the first chapter of Genesis
Weissenau, Monastery of - Suppressed Premonstratensian house in Wuertemberg
Weld - Name of a prominent English Catholic family
Wells in Scripture - It is difficult to realize the importance which a country like Palestine attaches to any source of fresh water
Welsh Church - The term Welsh Church covers 'the British Church during the Roman period', 'the British Church during the period of Saxon Conquest', and 'the Church of Wales'
Welsh Monastic Foundations - The British church was driven into Wales in the fifth century
Wenceslaus, Saint - The patron saint of Bohemia, murdered by his brother c. 929
Werburgh, Saint - Benedictine abbess, died 699 or 700. Biographical article
Wessobrunn - Suppressed Benedictine abbey in Bavaria
West Syrian Rite - The rite used by the Jacobite sect in Syria and by the Catholic Syrians is in its origin simply the old rite of Antioch in the Syriac language
Western Schism - Only a temporary misunderstanding, even though it compelled the Church for forty years to seek its true head; it was fed by politics and passions, and was terminated by the assembling of the councils of Pisa and Constance
Westminster Abbey - This most famous of all English abbeys is situated within the precincts of the Royal Palace of Westminster
Westphalia - Province of Prussia
Whitaker, Venerable Thomas - Brief biography of this Lancashire priest, martyred in 1646
Whitby, Synod of - A conference at the monastery of St. Hilda at Whitby or Streanoeshalch. King Oswy with Bishops Colman and Chad represented the Celtic tradition; Alchfrid, son of Oswy, and Bishops Wilfrid and Agilbert that of Rome
White, Richard, Venerable - Real name, Richard Gwyn. Welsh schoolmaster, husband and father, had a reputation as a scholar, poet, martyred in 1584
White, Robert - English composer (1530-1574)
White Fathers - Missionaries of Our Lady of Africa of Algeria
Whitsunday - A feast which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ
Wichita Indians - A confederacy of Caddoan stock, formerly dwelling between the Arkansas River, Kansas, and the Brazos River, Texas
Widow - Canonical prescriptions concerning widows in the Old Testament refer mainly to the question of remarriage
Widukind - Saxon leader, and one of the heads of the Westphalian nobility
Wigbert, Saint - English-born companion of St. Boniface. Wigbert was abbot of Hersfeld and, for a time, of Ohrdruf. He died in about 746
Wilfrid, Saint - Biographical article on this abbot and bishop, who died in 709
Wilhelm of Herle - Painter, born at Herle in Dutch Limburg at an unknown date in the fourteenth century
Will - This article discusses will in its psychological aspect
Will and Testament of Clerics - Roman law allowed clerics to dispose of their property by will or otherwise
Will, Free - The question of free will, moral liberty, or the liberum arbitrium of the Schoolmen, ranks amongst the three or four most important philosophical problems of all time
Willaert, Adrian - Biography of the composer (1480-1562)
William, Saint - Biographical article on William Fitzherbert, also called William of Thwayt. Twelfth-century Archbishop of York
William Carter, Venerable - English printer, martyred in 1584
William Filby, Blessed - English priest, martyred in 1582. Article also has details on Bl. Laurence Richardson and St. Luke Kirby, his companions in martyrdom
William Lacy, Blessed - English widower, became a priest. He was martyred at York in 1582
William of Gellone, Saint - Late eighth century. The second count of Toulouse, founded a Benedictine monastery, then became a monk himself
William of Norwich, Saint - William's corpse was found showing signs of a violent death. He is the earliest example of a medieval blood libel saint, having died in 1144. His biographer relied on hearsay, and was 'a man of unlimited credulity.'
William of Ockham - Biographical article on the fourteenth-century Franciscan philosopher
William of Perth, Saint - Honored as a martyr because he was on pilgrimage to Jerusalem when murdered by his adopted son
William of St-Thierry - Theologian and mystic (1085-1148)
William the Conqueror - King of England and Duke of Normandy
Williamites - Name of two minor religious orders
Willibrord, Saint - Article on the Benedictine missionary and bishop, who died in 739
Wimborne Minster - Monastery in Dorsetshire, England
Winckelmann, Johann Joachim - Archaeologist and historian of ancient art (1717-1768)
Winding Sheet of Christ, Feast of the Holy - In 1206 one of the (supposed) Winding Sheets used at the burial of Christ was brought to Besancon by Otto de La Roche, and the feast of its arrival (Susceptio) was ordered to be kept on 11 July
Window, Rose - A circular window, with mullions and traceries generally radiating from the centre, and filled with stained glasses
Windows in Church Architecture - A history of the use and form of windows in Christian houses of worship
Wine, Altar - Wine is one of the two elements absolutely necessary for the sacrifice of the Eucharist. For valid and licit consecration vinum de vite, i.e. the pure juice of the grape naturally and properly fermented, is to be used
Winnebago Indians - A Siouan tribe closely related in speech to the Iowa, Missouri, and Oto, and more remotely to the Dakota and Ponca
Winnoc, Saint - Early eighth-century Benedictine prior
Wisdom, Book of - One of the deutero-canonical writings of the Old Testament, placed in the Vulgate between the Canticle of Canticles and Ecclesiasticus
Wisdom, Daughters of - Founded at Poitiers by Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort in 1703
Wise Men (Magi) - The 'wise men from the East' who came to adore Jesus in Bethlehem (Matthew 2)
Witchcraft - As commonly understood, involves the idea of a diabolical pact or at least an appeal to the intervention of the spirits of evil
Witness - One who is present, bears testimony, furnishes evidence or proof
Witt, Francis Xavier - Composer and reformer of church music (1834-1888)
Wittenberg - City and University
Wolfgang, Saint - Tenth-century Benedictine bishop of Ratisbon (Regensburg)
Wolgemut, Michael - Painter and engraver (1434-1519)
Wolsey, Thomas - Cardinal Archbishop of York (1471-1530)
Woman - The position of woman in society has given rise to a discussion which, is known under the name of the 'woman question'
Wood-Carving - Discusses the branch of wood-carving dealing with artistic objects, belonging either to plastic (as statues, crucifixes, and similar carvings), or to industrial art (as arabesques and rosettes), and which serve mainly for the ornamentation of cabinet work
Woods, Julian Edmund Tenison - Priest and scientist (1832-1889)
Words (in Canon Law) - Canonists give many rules for the exact acceptation of words, in order that decrees may be correctly understood and the extent of their obligation determined
World, Antiquity of the - Various attempts have been made to establish the age of the world
Wormwood - Wormwood, known for its repulsive bitterness
Wörndle, Von, Family - Philip, Edmund, and August
Worship, Christian - In its most general sense, homage paid to a person or a thing
Wounds, The Five Sacred - The revival of religious life and the zealous activity of St. Bernard and St. Francis in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, together with the enthusiasm of the Crusaders returning from the Holy Land, increased devotion to the Passion of Jesus Christ and particularly to practices in honour of the Wounds in His Sacred Hands, Feet, and Side
Wyche, Saint Richard de - The devoted companion of St. Edmund Rich, was bishop of Chichester. Richard died in 1253, and was canonized less than 10 years later
Wyclif, John - Lengthy biographical article. Includes bibliography.

X

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Xainctonge, Venerable Anne de - Foundress of the Society of the Sisters of St. Ursula of the Blessed Virgin
Xaverian Brothers - Congregation of the Brothers of St. Francis Xavier. An institute of laymen, founded under episcopal approbation by Theodore James Ryken, in Belgium, in the year 1839
Xavier, Saint Francis - Biographical article on one of the first Jesuits, and missionary to Asia, who died in 1552
Ximenes, Didacus - A Spanish Dominican of the sixteenth century; noted as a theologian, philosopher, and astronomer
Ximénez de Cisneros, Francisco - Franciscan, cardinal, and Primate of Spain, born at Torrelaguna in New Castile. 1436-1517)
Xystus I, Pope Saint - Martyr, reigned for ten years in the very early part of the second century

Y

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Yahweh - Proper name of God in the Old Testament
Yakima Indians - A Shahaptian tribe formerly dwelling on the banks of the Columbia, the Wenatchee, and northern branches of the Yakima Rivers, in the east of Washington
Yamasee Indians - A Muskhogean tribe, mentioned frequently in the history of South Carolina, residing formerly near the Savannah River and in Florida
Yaqui Indians - A Cahita tribe, formerly dwelling near the Rio Yaqui
Yazoo Indians - A small tribe formerly living on the lower course of Yazoo River, Mississippi, in close connection with several other tribes, including the Tonica
Yellow Knives - A sub-arctic Dene tribe, called the Copper Indians by Hearne and other early English writers, and Red Knives by Mackenzie and Franklin
Yom Kippur - A most solemn fast, on which no food could be taken throughout the day, and servile works were forbidden
York, Ancient See of - The seat of metropolitan jurisdiction for the northern province
York, Cardinal of - Cardinal, Duke of York, known by the Jacobites as 'Henry IX, King of Great Britain, France, and Ireland'; born at Rome, 11 March, 1725; died at Frascati, 13 July, 1807
York, Use of - Principle in medieval canon law that while as regards judicial matters, as regards the sacraments, and also the more solemn fasts, the custom of the Roman Church was to be adhered to
Youghal - The Wardenship of Youghal, in the Diocese of Cloyne, was founded by Thomas, Eighth Earl of Desmond
Youville, Marie-Marguérite d' - Biography of the founder of the Gray Nuns, or Sisters of Charity. She died in 1771
Young Men's Institute - A Catholic fraternal organization, founded on 4 March, 1883, at San Francisco, California
Ysambert, Nicolas - French theologian (1565-1642)
Yucatán, Archdiocese of - Located in the Republic of Mexico; Campeche and Tabasco are its suffragans
Yukon, Prefecture Apostolic of - Occupies the extreme northwestern portion of the Dominion of Canada
Yun-nan - The Mission of Yun-nan includes the whole province, which is situated in the southwestern corner of China
Yuracaré Indians - A Bolivian tribe living between Santa Cruz de la Sierra and Cochabamba
Yves, Saint - Or St. Yves. Patron saint of lawyers, d. 1303
Yves of Chartres, Saint - Essay on the life and writings of this bishop, who died in 1116

Z

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Zabarella, Francesco - Cardinal, celebrated canonist, born at Padua (1360-1417)
Zabulon - One of the twelve sons of Jacob and ancestor of the tribe of the same name
Zacatecas - Diocese in the Republic of Mexico, suffragan of Guadalajara
Zaccaria, Francesco Antonio - Theologian, historian, and writer (1714-1795)
Zacconi, Ludovico - Musical theorist (1550-1623)
Zacharias - The prophecy of Zacharias is one of the books admitted by both Jews and Christians into their canon of Sacred Writings, one of the Minor Prophets
Zacharias Chrysopolitanus - A famous exegete of the Premonstratensian Order; born at Chrysopolis (Besancon); died about 1155
Zachary, Pope Saint - Biography of this eighth-century pontiff, with special emphasis on his diplomacy and his relations with St. Boniface
Zachary, Canticle of - One of the three great canticles in the opening chapters of this Gospel, the other two being the Magnificat and Nunc dimittis
Zádori, János - Ecclesiastical writer, born at Katloez, County of Neutra, Hungary (1831-1887)
Zahle and Forzol - Greco-Melchite diocese
Zakho - Diocese in Chaldea
Zallinger zum Thurn, Jacob Anton - Philosopher and canonist (1735-1813)
Zallwein, Gregor - Austrian canonist (1712-1766)
Zalvidea, José Maria de - Spanish Franciscan, born at Bilbao, Vizeaya, Spain (1780-1846)
Zama - Titular see of Numidia. Zama Major and Zama Minor
Zambesi Mission - Prefecture Apostolic of the Zambesi Mission
Zamboanga, Diocese of - Philippine Islands, including the islands of Basilan, Camiguin, Dinagat, Mindanao, Siargao, and the Sulu Archipelago
Zamboni, Giuseppe - Priest and physicist (1776-1846)
Zamora - Diocese in Spain
Zamora - Diocese in Mexico
Zamora - Vicariate Apostolic in Ecuador
Zampieri, Domenico - Italian painter (1581-1641)
Zängerle, Roman Sebastian - Prince-Bishop of Seckau (1771-1848)
Zante - Diocese in Greece
Zantedeschi, Francesco - Priest and physicist (1797-1873)
Zanzibar - Located on the eastern coast of Africa, colonized by Asiatic nations
Zapoteca Indians - Mexican tribe located chiefly in Oaxaca and Guerrero
Zara - Archdiocese in Dalmatia
Zarai - Titular see of Numidia in Africa
Zarlino, Gioseffe - Italian musical theorist (1517-1590)
Zasius, Ulric - Jurist, born at Constance (1461-1536)
Zeal - From delos, a derivative of deo 'to boil', to 'throb with heat'
Zegers, Nicholas Tacitus - Exegete, born either at Diest or Brussels during the latter half of the fifteenth century; died at Louvain, 25 August, 1559
Zela - Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Amasea in the Helenopontus
Zell, Karl - Statesman, philologist, defender of Church rights (1793-1873)
Zell, Ulrich - Publisher, first printer of Cologne (d. 1507)
Zengg-Modrus - Diocese in Hungary
Zeno, Saint - Bishop of Verona, d. 380
Zeno of Elea - Greek philosopher (b. 490 B.C.)
Zenobius, Saint - Bishop of Florence, died probably in 417
Zenonopolis - Titular see of Asia Minor, suffragan of Seleucia, Trachaea in Isauria
Zephaniah - The ninth of the twelve Minor Prophets of the Canon of the Old Testament; preached and wrote in the second half of the seventh century B.C
Zephyrinus, Pope Saint - Fairly long article on this pontiff, who died in 217
Zephyrium - Titular see in Cilicia
Zeugma - Titular see in Syria
Zeuss, Johann Kaspar - Founder of Celtic philology, an eminent philologist, and studied at the gymnasium of Bamberg (1806-1856)
Ziegelbauer, Magnoald - Historian who took vows at the Abbey of Zwiefalten 21 November, 1707, was ordained priest, 21 March, 1713, and became professor of theology at his monastery
Ziegler, Gregorius Thomas - Bishop of Linz (1770-1852)
Zierikzee, Cornelius van - Franciscan born at Zierikzee, a town in the Province of Zeeland, Holland (1405-1462)
Zigliara, Tommaso Maria - Cardinal, theologian, and philosopher (1833-1893)
Zimmer, Patrick Benedict - Philosopher and theologian (1752-1820)
Zingarelli, Niccolò Antonio - Composer, born at Naples (1752-1837)
Zingerle, Pius - Orientalist, born at Meran, in the Tyrol 1801. Died at the Abbey of Marienberg near Meran in 1881
Zionists - Followers of the movement to segregate the Jewish people as a nation
Zionites - A sect which flourished in the eighteenth century at Ronsdorf in the Duchy of Berg
Zips - Diocese in Hungary
Zircz - Cistercian abbey in Hungary
Zita, Saint - Short biographical article on the domestic servant, who died in 1271
Zita's Home for Friendless Women, Saint - Founded in New York, by Ellen O'Keefe (Mother Zita) in 1890
Zoara - A titular see of Palestina Tertia
Zoega, Jörgen - Archeologist and numismatist (1755-1809)
Zolkiewski, Stanislaus - Chancellor of Poland (1547-1620)
Zonaras, John - Twelfth-century Byzantine chronicler and canonist
Zoque Indians - A Mexican tribe dwelling in the western part of Chipas, north of the Sierra Madre, and part of Tabasco and Oaxaca
Zosimus, Pope Saint - Account of his pontificate focuses on his entanglement with the Pelagian controversy
Zosimus - Biographical article providing an overview of Zosimus' contributions to Roman history
Zucchetto - The small, round skullcap of the ecclesiastic
Zulia, Diocese of - Comprises the State of Zulia in the Republic of Venezuela
Zululand - A territory in South Africa inhabited by the Zulus or Amazulus, who belong to the Bantu family
Zumárraga, Juan de - Franciscan born at Durango in the Basque. Custodian of the convent of Abrojo
Zuñi Indians - A Pueblo tribe residing on the bank of the Rio Zuni near the boundary of New Mexico
Zurbaran, Francisco - Artist born in the suburb of Fuente de Cantos in Estramadure, on the boundaries of Andalusia, Nov., 1598
Zurich - The capital of the Swiss canton of the same name
Zurla, Giacinto Placido - Cardinal Vicar of Rome and writer on medieval geography, born at Legnano of noble parents (1769-1843)
Zwettl - Cistercian abbey in Austria
Zwingli, Ulrich - Founder of the Reformation in Switzerland, born at Wildhaus in Switzerland (1484-1531)
Zwirner, Ernst Friedrich - Architect born at Jakobswalde in Silesia (1802-1861)

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